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Prentice hall>earth science>chapter 18>climate and climate change


The average , year-after-year conditions of temperature, precipitation ,winds,and clouds in an area

Tropical zone

The area near the equator, between about 23.5° north latitude and 23.5° south latitude

Polar zone

The area near both poles, from about 66.5° to 90 north and 66.5° to 90° south latitudes

Temperate zones

The area between the tropical and polar zones, from about 23.5° to 66.5° north and 23.5° to 66.5° south latitudes

Marine climate

the climate of some coastal regions, with relatively warm winters and cool summers

Continental climate

The climate of the centers of continents, with cold winters and warm or hot summers


the side of the mountains that faces the oncoming wind


The downwind side of the mountains


The climate characteristics of a small, specific area; it may be different from the climate of the surrounding area

Rain forrest

A forest in the tropical wet climate zone that gets plenty of rain all year


A tropical grassland with scattered clumps of trees; found in the tropical wet-and-dry climate zone close to the equator


a region that receives less than 25 centimeters of rain a year


A prairie or grassland found in the semiarid climate region

Humid subtropical

a wet and warm climate found on the edges of the tropics


a climate zone that lies north of the humid continental climate zone, with short, cool summers and long, bitterly cold winters


a polar climate region, found across northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia, with short , cool summers and bitterly cold winters


permanently frozen soil found in the tundra climate region

Ice ages

Cold time periods in Earth's history, during which glaciers covered large parts of the surface


Dark, cooler regions on the of the sun

Greenhouse gas

an atmospheric gas that traps heat

Global warming

an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere


Chloride compounds formerly used in air conditioners , refrigerators, and spray cans; also called CFCs

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