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A&P LEC Exam 2 - skeletal system
Terms in this set (17)
What are the functions of long bones?
4. inorganic salt storage
Where is red marrow found?
spongy bone (ends of long bones, hipbones, vertebra, skull, clavicle)
The _________ is found on the end of long bones and is generally wider.
The _________ is the bone shaft between the epiphysis on each end
The __________ covers long bone
The articulating surface of the epiphysis is covered by a layer of __________ cartilage known as the articular cartilage.
Which type of bone has canal systems?
which type of bone is found in the epiphysis filled with red marrow?
Explain steps in intramembranous ossification
1. sheets of connective tissue appear at sites of future bones (like fontanels)
2. connective tissue cells collect around blood vessels and begin to differentiate
3. Cells differentiate into osteoblasts which deposit spongy bone
4. Osteoblasts become osteocytes once bony matrix completely surrounds them
5. Connective tissue on surface of structure becomes periosteum
6. Osteoplasts inside of periosteum deposit compact bone over spongy bone
Explain steps in endochondral ossification
1. Masses of hyaline cartilage form models of future bones
2. cartillage tissue decomposes and periosteum develops
3. blood vessels and osteoblasts from the periosteum invade the decomposing tissue
4. Osteoblasts form spongy bone where cartilage is
5. Osteoblasts beneath periosteum deposit a thin layer of compact bone
6. Osteoblasts become osteocytes once completely surrounded by bony matrix
Define epiphyseal plate
4 layers of cartilaginous tissue where where secondary ossification and all growth in bone length occurs
The 4 layers of tissue in the epiphyseal plate are:
Zone of resting cartilage
Zone of proliferating cartilage
zone of hypertropic cartilage
zone of calcified cartilage
Growth of mature bone is stimulated by?
sex hormones and physical stress applied to the bone
_______ % of calcium is exchanged each year in mature bone
__________ resorb bone tissue & __________ replace bone tissue
What population does osteoporosis affect most? Where?
Females due to estrogen levels declining after menopause.
Spine, hip, and wrist
How can you combat osteoporosis?
exercise, calcium intake, hormone replacement
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