Feudalism and Manorial System
Terms in this set (76)
Into small independent local governments
After Charlemagne died, how was Europe divided?
What is the political system that evolved called?
Vikings, Magyars, Muslims
Which groups were invading Europe?
Since people were afraid of these invasions and needed protection, what political system emerged?
They divide it among lesser nobles
In feudalism, how did the local lords divide their land?
Service, loyalty, and military assisstance
What did the nobles give their lord in exchange for land?
A person who granted land to another (He was in charge)
Who was a lord?
A person who held land in return for services
Who was a vassal?
A grant of land which included peasants, towns and buildings
What is a fief?
A contract between the Lord and the vassal
What was granting and holding a fief in the beginning?
It became something that was inherited
What did the possession of a fief become?
The lord's eldest son
Who inherited a lord's fief?
The vassal's eldest son
Who inherited a vassal's fief?
Could a fief be divided?
That the eldest son inherited the entire fief- younger siblings received nothing
What did the primogeniture system mean?
It was an honorable relationship between legal equals
Who had feudal relationships?
All the nobility
Who were legal equals?
Could men be a vassal and a lord at the same time?
A very personal relationship, this meant each man owed loyalties and obligations to the lord above and vassal below
What type of relationship was a feudal relationship?
A lord promises to protect the vassal, and, the vassal pledges loyalty
What was a feudal contract?
40 days of military service a year, money payments and advice
What did a vassal pledge to do for his lord?
Who had more obligations- vassals or lords?
Cavalry riders, infantry soldiers
What did the vassal provide for their lord while serving in the military?
Vassals paid their own expenses
Who paid for a vassal's expenses?
The lord's vassal had to for a certain number of days per year
Who housed and fed the lord?
1. Trial by battle (duel)
2. Compurgation or oath taking
What were the 3 ways in which decisions at trials were made?
Rivals would fight by duel, the outcome of the duel would determine the guilt or innocence of the person
What happened in a trial by battle (or duel)?
A group of people "swore" their man was telling the truth, character witnessing
What happened when there was a trial by compurgation (or oath taking)?
The accused carries a piece of hot iron or walks through fire or plunges their arm in boiling water to get a rock
What happened when there was a trial by ordeal?
If the wounds healed quickly, the person was innocent, if the wounds did not heal quickly, the person was guilty
How did they determine if a person was guilty or innocent if the trial was by ordeal?
Between lord and vassals
Who were most conflicts between in the medieval period?
Men who fought while wearing iron, metal armor and chain mail
Who were knights?
Weath and glory
What did war mean for peasants?
Suffering and famine
What did war mean for peasants?
Forbidding violence aganist certain people and things, Canon Law
How did the church try to limit the private wars that were happening at this time?
Cattle and agriculture equipment
Clergy, women, merchants and pilgrims
Who did the church forbid violence against?
Said there were certain places where fighting was not permitted, these included cemeteries and churches
What did the "Peace of God" section of Canon Law say about fighting?
Fighting was forbidden on weekends and Holy Days
What did the "Truce of God" section of the Canon Law say about fighting?
After other days are added to the "Truce of God" section, how many legal fighting days were there in a year?
The manor system
What was the medieval economic system called?
Large farming estate
What was a manor?
Had a manor house, pastures, fields, a village
What did a manor have on it?
Was a manor and economic unit or political system?
A fief was a political unit and a manor was an economic unit
What was the difference between a fief and a manor?
How many manors did a small fief have?
How many manors did a large fief have?
A lord and several peasants
Who shared a manor?
1/3 of the land
How much of the manor land belonged to the lord?
Peasants, they did not own the land- they worked the land and gave crops to the lord and paid taxes on him
Who used the other 2/3 of the land?
What were most peasants?
A serf was bound to the land (was not allowed to leave the land), a peasant could not leave the lord's land without permission
What was the difference between a serf and a peasant?
Was life easy for the nobility?
What was the place of protection called?
Why was a castle usually built on a hill?
A moat with a drawbridge
What surrounded a castle if it was not built on a hill?
What was the main part of the castle?
Looking after the land, keeping an eye on vassals and serfs
How did a lord spend most of his day?
What did a lord spend some time doing each year?
They were amused by tournaments
When a lord was not fighting, what did he do for amusement?
How did early tournaments end?
They were like pageants where people jousted instead of killed
What were later tournaments like?
A code of conduct for knights, a system of rules that dicated knights' behavior towards others
What was chivalry?
"Cheval" meaning "horse"
Where did the word "chivalry" come from?
Knights were mounted soldiers (that fought on horse)
Why did chivalry originate for this word?
The noble class
What class did a knight have to belong to?
Brave, loyal to their friend, keep their word, fight fairly
What did chivalry require a knight to be?
How were knights expected to be towards women?
What did knights carry on their banners and shields?
What did banner and shields become?
A coat of arms
What was a banner and shield eventually incorporated into?
How many stages did a knight have to go through?
What was the first stage a knight had to go through?
At the age of 7, they learned to be an attendent to a knight, learned manners and how to use weapons
What did a page learn?
What was the second stage a knight had to go through?
In their teens they were a knight's assistant, they cared for the knight's horses, armor, weapons and clothing, if they were ready, they could go into battle with a knight
What did they learn as a squire?
A religious ceremony
How was a squire initiated into knighthood?