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A&P LEC Exam 2 - joints
Terms in this set (39)
The 3 general groups of joints are ?
fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints, and synovial joints
A _________ is an amphiarthrotic fibrous joint that would be found between the tibia and fibula
A _____ is a synarthrotic fibrous joint. An example would be between the teeth and maxilla
A ___________ joint has no movement
A ________ joint is freely moveable
A _________ joint has some movement
Joints can be classified into what functional categories?
synarthrotic - no movement
amphiarthrotic - some movement
diarthrotic - freely moveable
Describe the types of fibrous joints and where they are found
1. syndesmosis - sheet of dense connective tissue. Found between tibia and fibula. amphiarthrotic (slightly moveable)
2. suture - thin sheet dense connective tissue. Found between cranial bones. synarthrotic (doesn't move)
3. gomphosis - cone shaped bone in a socket. Found between teeth and maxilla. synarthrotic (doesn't move)
A _______ is a type of cartilagenous joint composed of hyaline AND fibrocartilage. Found in symphysis pubis or intervertebral disks. amphiarthrotic
A _________ is a synarthrotic band of hyaline cartilage found in ephiphyseal plate or 1st sternocostal joint. It is a type of cartilagenous joint.
Describe the types of cartilagenous joints and where they are found.
synchondrosis - band of hyaline cartilage. found in ephiphyseal plate or 1st sternocostal joint. synarthrotic
symphysis - hyaline AND fibrocartilage. found in symphysis pubis or intervertebral disks. amphiarthrotic
What are the characteristics of a synovial joint?
articular cartilage covers the articular ends
joint cavity, joint capsule, and synovial fluid
menisci (disks of fibrocartilage) may be present
bursae (fluid filled sacs) may be present
What are the types of synovial joints and where are they found
1. ball and socket (shoulder, hip)
2. condylar (between metacarpals and phalanges)
3. plane (between bones of wrist and ankle)
4. hinge (elbow and joints of phalanges)
5. pivot (between proximal ends of radius and ulna)
6. saddle (between carpal and metacarpal of thumb)
A ball and socket joint (shoulder, hip) is capable of what type of movement?
movement in all planes, including rotation
A condylar joint (Between metacarpals & phalanges) is capable of what type of movement?
variety of movements in different planes, but no rotation
A plane joint (between bones of wrist and ankle) is capable of what type of movement?
sliding or twisting
hinge joints (Elbow & phalanges) are capable of what type of movement?
flexion and extension
pivot joints (between proximal ends of radius and ulna) are capable of what type of movement?
saddle joints (between carpal and metacarpal of thumb) are capable of what type of movement?
variety of movements, in two planes
example ball and socket
between metacarpals and phalanges
between various bones of wrist and ankle
elbow and joints of phalanges
joint between proximal ends of radius and ulna
joint between carpal and metacarpal of thumb
Intervertebral disks are composed of ?
nucleus pulposus - jelly inside
annulus fibrosis - fiber tissue outside
What happens in a herniated disk
A weakened annulus fibrosis causes nucleus pulposus to move out of central region and crowd spinal cord
Where does herniated disk typically occur?
What are some causes of joint instabilities?
1. previous dislocations/subloxations
2. joint sprains
3. muscle atrophy
4. hormones in late pregnancy
What are the types of joint dislocations?
1. dislocation, in which joint is moved out of normal position and stays there
2. subluxation, joint is moved out of normal position, but moves back to original position without corrective force
Damage to a ligament or joint capsule surrounding a joint is known as a _________
describe grade 1 sprain
ligaments stretched, but not torn
little swelling, no bruising
sore, but not loss of function
describe grade 2 sprain
ligaments are partially torn
slight bruising with significant swelling
partial loss of function
describe grade 3 sprain
ligaments completely torn
significant swelling and bruising
complete loss of function
The presence of crystals in synovial joint fluid would indicate ________
the presence of white blood cells in synovial fluid would indicate _____________
inflammation or infection
___________ arthritis is an autoimmune disease where inflammation eventually erodes away the articulating surface and fibrous tissue replaces damaged parts
___________________ is degenerative rather than inflammatory disorder of synovial joints
What occurs during osteoarthritis?
articular cartilage begins to soften and become rough
joint space narrows
movement along roughened surface becomes painful and the joint can lock up
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