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Pathology - Chapter 5 - Developmental Disorders


Some shape, form or number altering conditions involving the jaws, dentition, and teeth can be familial or ___?

1. Clinically
2. Biopsy
3. Radiographs

Disorders may be identified in what ways?

Developmental disorder or developmental anomaly

This is a failure or disturbance that occurs during developmental processes that results in a lack, excess or deformity of a body part.

Inherited disorders

These are causes by an abnormality in the genetic makeup


This is present at birth and can be either inherited or developmental. Most causes of this are unknown.

3rd and 8th

Which week is the embryonic development of the face, oral cavity & teeth forming?


This is limited tongue movement secondary to improper attachment to the floor of the mouth

tongue- tied

This is another name for ankyloglossia?

Short lingual frenum is corrected with surgical removal of a portion of a lingual frenum

How is ankyloglossia fixed?

Commissural lip pits, or can also be congenital lip pits

This is a developmental anomaly that forms at the corner of the mouth.

Lingual thyroid

This is a developmental abnormality in whihc thyroid tissue is present in the base of the tongue between the circumvallate papillae and the epiglottis

ectopic lingual thyroid nodule

The failure of thyroid tissue to occur in its normal position is known as ___?

Due to location & size this can cause difficulty swallowing and may need to be removed.

Lingual Thyroid


Developmental cysts are mostly seen through __?


This is an abnormal sax or cavity lined by epithelium and enclosed in a connective tissue capsule


T/F cysts can occur throughout the body including the oral region.


T/F a non-ondontogenic cyst is related to tooth development.

Ondontogenic cyst

This type of cyst relates to tooth development.

Non-Ondontogenic cyst

This type of cyst is not related to tooth development.

Intraosseous cyst

This type of cyst occurs within the bone.

Extraosseous cyst

This type cyst occurs in soft tissue.

Residual cyst

Another name for a radicular cyst is ___?

Radicular or residual cyst

This type if cyst remains after extraction of a tooth & would not be referred right away since it may go away on its own.


Radicular =

Dentigerous cyst

This type of cyst forms around the crown of an unerupted or developing tooth.


How do you find a dentigerous cyst?

ondontogenic cysts - dentigerous

Which type of cyst is most commonly found in 3rd molars?

Eruption cyst

This type of cyst is found in soft tissue around the crown of an erupting tooth.

can be seen on any tooth but is more common in mixed dentition and will normally resolve on its own.

Eruption cyst

Primordial cyst

This type of cyst develops in place of a tooth and is most commonly associated with 3rd molars.


T/F a primordial cyst is usually asymptomatic


T/F a primordial cyst can be discovered by looking in the mouth or by xray


Cysts are classified by ___?

Odontogenic Keratocysts

This is commonly seen in the 3rd molar area, comes from remnants of the dental lamina & may be aggressive in growth


Odontogenic Keratocysts are twice as common in the ___.


Odontogenic Keratocysts grow in a ___ area that usually extends beyond the pano xray.

calcifying ondontogenic cyst

This uncommon type of cyst can occur at any age and once removed usually wont return.

nonaggressive, uncommon lesion that appears to arise from remnants of ondontogenic epithelium either within bone or soft tissues.

Calcifying ondontogenic cysts

Lateral periodontal cyst

This develops alongside the tooth and is usually seen in mandibular canines and in the premolar region.

Gingival cyst

This occurs in the mandibular region of canines and premolars but is found on the soft tissue

This cyst is most common in people aged 40-60

nonondontogenic cyst - nasopalatine canal cyst

incisive canal cyst

Another name for nasopalatine canal cyst is __?

nasopalatine canal cyst

This cyst is located within the nasopalatine canal or incisive papilla. This cyst may appear heart shaped radiographically between the maxillary incisors

Globulomaxillary cyst

This cyst is found between root of maxillary lateral incisor and canine and is pear shaped

Median Mandibular Cyst

The origin of this rare cyst in unclear, it is found in the midline of mandible

Nasolabial cyst

This cyst is a swelling in the mucolabial fold of the maxillary canine area and the floor of the nose

This cyst can sometimes be seen on the outside of the face

Nasolabial cyst

branchial cleft cyst

Another name for a lymphoepithelial cyst is?

Lymphoepithelial cyst

This type of cyst is most commonly found in salivary glands.

This kind of cyst is a raised nodule in the skin or face and neck

Epidermal cyst

Epidermal cyst

This cyst resembles acne, is moveable, normally located on the floor of the mouth or in the cheek area. Sometimes it is connected to a pore and is filled with a cheesy material.

benign cystic teratoma

Another name for dermoid cyst?

Dermoid cyst

This cyst is present at birth, is rarely found in the oral cavity but if it is it is on the floor of the mouth

Thyroglossal Tract Cyst

This is an enlargement at the midline of the neck caused by a duct that descends from the tongue


This looks like a cyst but is not & is usually due to trauma

Static Bone Cyst

This psuedocyst is found radiographically in the posterior region of the mandible inferior to the mandibular canal & may go away on its own.

Simple Bone Cyst

This psuedocyst is identified by scalloping around the roots and may go away on its own.

Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

This is a blood filled space that looks like a honeycomb or soap bubble & is usually due to trauma


This condition causes congenitally missing teeth


This condition is a lack of one or more teeth


This condition cause extra teeth

mesiodens ( found between max. central incisors)

The most common supernumerary tooth is __?

distomolar (max 4th molar region)

The second most common supernumerary tooth is the ___?


When the tooth is smaller than normal it is called __?


When the tooth is larger than normal it is called __?

max 3rd molars and lateral incisors

The most common place for microdontia is __?

true generalized and generalized relative

The types of micro & macrodontia are __?


This is when a single tooth germ attempts to divide and results in incomplete formation of two teeth


This is the union of two normal separated adjacent tooth germs

2 tooth germs with only one crown



This is when two teeth are united by cementum only


This is when the roots of a tooth are curved

Enamel pearl

This is a small circular projection located on the root surface

Talon Cusp

This is an accessory cusp located in the cingulum area of the incisors


This is when the teeth exhibit elongated large pup chambers and short roots

Dens in Dente

This occurs when the enamel organ invaginates into the crown before mineralization

Dens envaginatus

This is when an accessory enamel cusp is found on the occlusal surfaces of premolars & is usually seen in mongoloid patients

Supernumerary roots

This is having extra roots & is most common in the 3rd molar region.

Enamel hypoplasia

This is incomplete formation of enamel?

1. Febrile illness
2. Vitamin deficiency
3. Local infection or trauma
4. Flouride ingestion
5. Congenital syphillis
6. Birth injury, premature birth,
7. Idiopathic factors (unknown)

What are some causes of incomplete formation of enamel?

Enamel Hypocalcification

This are disturbances that occur during the maturation of the enamel matrix (white spots)

Endogenous Staining of the teeth

This is caused by systemically circulating substances (like tetracycline) that are in the body during tooth development.

Ghost teeth

Another name for Regional Odontodysplasia is __?

Regional Ondontodysplasia

This condition is caused by thin enamel and dentin

Impacted or embedded

When teeth cannot erupt due to obstructions it is called?

Ankyloglossed teeth

This condition usually requires surgery and is found in primary teeth in which the bone has fused to cementum and dentin

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