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40 terms

Cognitive Development in Infancy (5)

STUDY
PLAY
Sensorimotor stage (Substage 1)
Piaget's first stage of development in which infant's use information from their seneses and motor actions to learn about the world (0-1 months)
primary circular reaction (Substage 2)
simple repetitive actions organized around an infant's own body (1-4 months)
secondary circular reaction (Substage 3)
repeatedly exhibits a behavior to produce a desired outcome (4-8 months)
means-end behavior (Substage 4)
purposeful behavior to a achieve a goal (8-12 months)
tertiary circular reaction (Substage 5)
experiments with different behavior to get a desired outcome (12-18 months)
primary circular reaction (Substage 2)
a baby repeatedly sucking their thumb is what type of reaction
means-end behavior (Substage 4)
a baby moving a toy out of the way to get to another toy is what type of reaction
secondary circular reaction (Substage 3)
a baby repeatedly cooing to get mom to smile is what type of reaction
tertiary circular reaction (Substage 5)
a baby dropping a toy from different heights to see if it makes a different sound is what type of reaction
object permanence
realization that objects still exist when hidden from site
deferred imitation
imitation that occurs in the absence of the model who first demonstrated it
A-not-B error (substage 4)
tendency for a child to look for an object in the last seen position rather than to the place they have seen a person move it
challenges to Piaget's viewpoint
underestimated cognitive capcity of infants, wrongly equated lack of physical ability with cognitive understanding, computer technology suggests object permenance occurs earlier
Elizabeth Spelke
believes that babies are born with built in assumptions that guide their interactions with objects
object concept
an infant's understanding of the nature of objects and how they behave
violation-of-expectations method
a research strategy in which researchers move an object in one way after haaving taught an infant to expect it to move in another
Renee Baillargeon
believes that knowledge about objects is NOT built in, but that the strategies for learning are innate
learning
permanent changes in behavior that result from experience
Schematic learning
organization of experiences into expectancies or "known" combinations
Carolyn Rovee-Collier
this person's research showed that babies as young as 3 months old can remember specific objects for up to a week
behaviorist
language development begins with babbling is a ______________ view
nativist
children make rule-governed grammatical errors is a ______________ view
Language Aquisition Device (LAD)
an innate language processor that contains the basic grammatical structure of all human language
interactionist
language development is part of a broader cognitive process, infants are more prepared to pay attention to language, language is used to express only thoughts they have already formed is a ______________ view
Infant Directed Speech (IDS)
Baby talk or speech that is directed in a higher pitch, elongated or repeated
crying
primary milestone of language development from birth to 1 month
cooing
primary milestone of language development from 1 - 2 months
babbling
primary milestone of language development from 6 to 7 months
hand gesturing with vocalization
primary milestone of language development from 9 to 10 months
receptive language
the ability to understand language
8 months
children begin to store language in memory at what age
20-30 words
A 9-10 month old can understand how many words
100 words
A 13 month old can understand how many words
expressive language
the ability to produce words
holophrases
combination of gestures and single words that convey more meaning than just the word alone
naming explosion
a period of rapid vocabulary growth
telegraphic speech
simple two-word sentences that usually include a noun and a verb
inflections
additions to words that change their meaning (plurals, past tense, tone)
expressive style
style of word learning characterized by low rates of noun-like terms and high use of personal social words and phrases
referential style
style of word learning characterized by emphasis on things and people and their naming description