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Sensorimotor stage (Substage 1)

Piaget's first stage of development in which infant's use information from their seneses and motor actions to learn about the world (0-1 months)

primary circular reaction (Substage 2)

simple repetitive actions organized around an infant's own body (1-4 months)

secondary circular reaction (Substage 3)

repeatedly exhibits a behavior to produce a desired outcome (4-8 months)

means-end behavior (Substage 4)

purposeful behavior to a achieve a goal (8-12 months)

tertiary circular reaction (Substage 5)

experiments with different behavior to get a desired outcome (12-18 months)

primary circular reaction (Substage 2)

a baby repeatedly sucking their thumb is what type of reaction

means-end behavior (Substage 4)

a baby moving a toy out of the way to get to another toy is what type of reaction

secondary circular reaction (Substage 3)

a baby repeatedly cooing to get mom to smile is what type of reaction

tertiary circular reaction (Substage 5)

a baby dropping a toy from different heights to see if it makes a different sound is what type of reaction

object permanence

realization that objects still exist when hidden from site

deferred imitation

imitation that occurs in the absence of the model who first demonstrated it

A-not-B error (substage 4)

tendency for a child to look for an object in the last seen position rather than to the place they have seen a person move it

challenges to Piaget's viewpoint

underestimated cognitive capcity of infants, wrongly equated lack of physical ability with cognitive understanding, computer technology suggests object permenance occurs earlier

Elizabeth Spelke

believes that babies are born with built in assumptions that guide their interactions with objects

object concept

an infant's understanding of the nature of objects and how they behave

violation-of-expectations method

a research strategy in which researchers move an object in one way after haaving taught an infant to expect it to move in another

Renee Baillargeon

believes that knowledge about objects is NOT built in, but that the strategies for learning are innate


permanent changes in behavior that result from experience

Schematic learning

organization of experiences into expectancies or "known" combinations

Carolyn Rovee-Collier

this person's research showed that babies as young as 3 months old can remember specific objects for up to a week


language development begins with babbling is a ______________ view


children make rule-governed grammatical errors is a ______________ view

Language Aquisition Device (LAD)

an innate language processor that contains the basic grammatical structure of all human language


language development is part of a broader cognitive process, infants are more prepared to pay attention to language, language is used to express only thoughts they have already formed is a ______________ view

Infant Directed Speech (IDS)

Baby talk or speech that is directed in a higher pitch, elongated or repeated


primary milestone of language development from birth to 1 month


primary milestone of language development from 1 - 2 months


primary milestone of language development from 6 to 7 months

hand gesturing with vocalization

primary milestone of language development from 9 to 10 months

receptive language

the ability to understand language

8 months

children begin to store language in memory at what age

20-30 words

A 9-10 month old can understand how many words

100 words

A 13 month old can understand how many words

expressive language

the ability to produce words


combination of gestures and single words that convey more meaning than just the word alone

naming explosion

a period of rapid vocabulary growth

telegraphic speech

simple two-word sentences that usually include a noun and a verb


additions to words that change their meaning (plurals, past tense, tone)

expressive style

style of word learning characterized by low rates of noun-like terms and high use of personal social words and phrases

referential style

style of word learning characterized by emphasis on things and people and their naming description

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