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65 terms

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Nutrients
Things we require used in energy and building
Essential
You can't manufacture it on your own
Vitamins
Building blocks, don't get energy.
Organic
Carbon based and unique to life
Minerals
Building blocks, don't get energy
Inorganic
Not carbon based
Four parts of food processing
Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption, Elimination
Digestion
Food is being broken down chemically and physically
Suspension Feeder
Filter Feeder
Substrate Feeder
Live in or on food source (maggots, worms)
Fluid Feeders
Parasites, take fluid from hosts
Bulk Feeders
Bring in pieces of food and then break it down
Intracellular Digestion
Single Cell, Phagocytosis, hydrolysis inside vacuole
Extracellular Digestion
Chemical breaking down takes place outside the cell with enzymes from the cell
Gastrovascular Cavity
Food exits where it enters, Dead end patch
Alimentary Canal
Where digestion occurs
Oral Cavity
Chew to get more surface area, carbohydrates are attacked in the mouth
Accessory Organs
Food doesn't pass through, secrete enzymes into the alimentary canal
Salivary glands
secrete salivary amylase to hack up carbohydrates
Epiglottis
Mechanism of swallowing triggers larynx to push up and valve lays over esophagus
One Enzyme in stomach
Pepsin
Stomach
Absorbs Nutrients to the Bloodstream
Chyme
A mixture of ingested food and digestive juice
Pepsin
Enzyme in stomach, breaks peptide bonds. Hacks up protein into smaller chunks and pieces
Pepsinogen
Inactive form of pepsin, actually translated. Does nothing, reliant on a highly acidic environment
Three benefits of stomach being highly acidic
1. Pepsinogen is cleaved
2. Degrades the extracellular matrixes that holds the cells together
3. Unravels protein to primary structure so pepsin cane easily access
Three ways stomach protects itself
1. Makes new cells every three days
2. Parietal cells secrete hydrogen and chloride ions in inactive forms
3. Mucus cells create a physical barrier to protect
Pancreatic Amylase
Enzyme in small intestine, breaks down carbohydrates
pancreatic nuclease
Enzyme in small intestine, break down nucleic acids
Bile Salts
Break down fats, no chemical breakage
What borders Small Intestine?
Capillaries
Villi
Wrinkles for more surface area, has capillaries
Fats in Small Intestine
Wrapped in cholesterol and protein (Chylomicrons) in order to transport
Hepa-
Liver
Liver
Screens the blood coming from the small intestine
If not absorbed by end of small intestine
Eliminated
Large Intestine
Absorbs water
Hydroxyl
OH. Will dissolve in water. (Carbohydrates) Bases
Carbonyl
C=O
Carboxyl
OH-C=O
Hydrogen fall off, Acid.
Amino Group
H-N-H, Bases. Pulls hydrogen protons out
Molecules
Involved in structure or energy
Types of Molecules (4)
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
Condensation Reaction
Turns monomers into polymer. Hydrogen and hydroxyl bond to make water
Hydrolysis
Turns polymers into monomers. Spontaneous
What makes Carbohydrates
Abundant of hydroxyls (COH)
Types of Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
Monosaccharide
Glucose, CH2O. Diversity comes from location of carbonyl group
Disaccharide
Maltose, Lactose
Polysaccharide
Starch, Cellulose. Serve as building material
Alpha glucose
Hydroxyl is above, helical
Beta glucose
Hydroxyl is below, straight. Structural.
Lipid General Characteristics
Don't dissolve in water because don't have hydroxyl groups
Fat
Subgroup of lipid, made up of glycerol and fatty acid
Fatty acid
has a lot of hydrogen, so stores energy
Phospholipids
Two fatty acids, glycerol and phosphate
Amino Acid
Central Carbon, Carboxyl Group, Amino group, Hydrogen and R
Peptide Bond
Linkage that binds amino acids
Primary Structure
Linear arrangement of amino acids in a chain (cannot denature)
Secondary Structure
Not under control of amino acids. Controlled by hydrogen bonds and interactions between amino acids
A Helix protein Secondary Structure
Every fourth hydrogen bond
B Pleated Sheets Secondary Structure
Every hydrogen directly above
Tertiary Structure
The further bending of the secondary structure upon itself. Controlled by side chains
Quaternary Structure
Multiple proteins
Chaperonins
Gives a microenvironment so protein can bend into shape with other proteins effecting it.