Intro To Geology 1 ASU
Terms in this set (39)
Above, we see a cross section of a cube that undergoes ______ in the horizontal direction to become a brick shape. (Square to Rectangle)
In the context of geology, a "joint" refers to...
C. a natural crack, on which there has been no sliding, in rock
The fault shown in the above diagram is a vertical surface, and the slip lineations on it are horizontal. What type of fault is it? (2 roads 1 car each)
A. strike slip
The diagram above depicts a _________ . The red line represents the _________ .
Exotic terranes attach ("accrete") to the margins of a continent during _______ and cause the area of the host continent to _______ ?
B. convergent orogeny/increase
The shield of a continent consists of...
C. The portion of the continent where extensive areas of Precambrian rock are exposed
_______ is a characteristic of un- deformed rocks.
B. spherical sand grains
Distortion is ___________.
C. change in a shape
Geologists distinguish among different kinds of downslope movement based, in part, on ________ .
C. rate of movement
The gradual downslope movement of surficial sediment or soil in a temperate climate is called ________. If such movement occurs in the tundra, where there is permafrost, it is called _______ .
Downslope movement can be triggered when
A. downslope force exceeds resistance force.
In a typical slump, the glide surface (slip surface) is _______ , and at the uphill end, a(n) ________ forms.
D. curving spoon-shape/head scarp
________ in sedimentary rock may become a failure surface.
A. bedding planes
The principal difference between a debris slide and a debris avalanche is the ______.
B. grain size of the moving mass
The main difference between a slump and a debris slide is the ______.
A. the shape of the path taken by
the moving mass
Moisture among sediment grains _______.
D. can promote stability if present in small amounts, but promotes mass wasting if sediment is saturated
Which of the following factors decreases the risk of mass movements?
D. adding vegetation to the side of a hill
Slow downhill movement of regolith 'creep' is due to soil
A. expansion and contraction
When you observe water flowing in a permanent stream, where does the water come from?
a. surface runoff.
b. Water temporarily trapped in soil
c. Groundwater rising from springs.
During the process of headward erosion, the distance from the mouth to the source of the stream...
The so-called continental divide of North America separates...
D. rivers that drain into the Atlantic from those that drain into the Pacific.
Why do the courses of rivers in some locations cut across resistant rock ridges rather than find a path around them?
C. The stream course was established when the stream flowed over a uniform substrate, and it was superposed on the nonuniform substrate below.
The longitudinal profile of a stream is typically _______ . The lowest elevation below which a stream cannot cut is called its ______ and occurs at the stream's ________ .
C. concave-up/base level/mouth
The velocity of water flow in a stream...
B. tends to be fastest at shallow depths near the stream's center.
The portion of a stream's sediment load that consists of tiny solid grains carried along with the water but not bouncing off the stream bed is a stream's ________.
A. suspended load
Which of the following changes in the landscape is likely if the ultimate base level of a stream drops significantly?
A. The stream downcuts to form a canyon.
How does oceanic crust differ from continental crust?
a) Ocean crust is about 7-10 km thick, whereas continental crust is about 15-70 km thick.
b) Ocean crust is composed almost entirely of basalt and gabbro, whereas continental crust includes many kinds of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
c) Oceanic crust is significantly denser than continental crust.
How deep are the abyssal plains of the ocean? / How high is the highest mountain on land (i.e., Mt. Everest)?
Abyssal plains range from 3 to 5 km deep. / Mt. Everest is 8.8 km high.
Thermohaline circulation in the oceans is driven by _______ . It is responsible for ________ .
A. density differences caused by contrasts in salinity and temperature / mixing deep and shallow water
Longshore drift of sand on a beach occurs when...
A. waves approach the shore at an angle.
Along a rocky coast, the sequence of landform development follows which sequence?
A. rocky headland->sea arch->sea stack
Unconsolidated gravel, containing abundant pores that are well connected to one another, would make a good ______ , because it could hold _________ , accessible water.
What drives the natural flow of groundwater?
A. pressure and gravity
Groundwater flow typically occurs at rates on the order of _______. According to Darcy's law, what happens to the rate of groundwater flow if the permeability increases?
C. 5 cm. per day/Flow rate increases.
Which statement is correct, in reference to a flowing artesian well?
C. The potentiometric surgace in the region of the well lies above the ground surface.
You are driving down the highway in a desert, just after it rained very heavily, and see some ephemeral streams in the low areas bordering the highway. Can you estimate the depth to the water table from this observation?
How can you tell where a perched water table intersects the face of a hill?
C. A spring flows
What happens as a consequence of pore collapse due to groundwater depletion?
A. land subsidence
A plume of contamination will...
A. move in the same direction of groundwater flow