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83 terms

Psychology Study guide chapter 1 DIFS

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Astrology
Studying the positions of the stars and planets in the belief that they influence the course of human affairs and natural occurrences on earth.
Behaviorism
the school of psychology, founded by John Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior
Biopsychologist
specialist who tries to explain behavior in terms of biological factors, such as electrical and chemical activities in the nervous system, the effects of drugs and hormones, genetics, and evolutionary pressures
Case Study
an in-depth study of a single person or group to reveal some universal principle
Clinical psychologist
a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances
Cognitive psychologist
Psychologists who study the mental processes underlying judgment, decision making, problem solving, imagining, and other aspects of human thought or cognition. Also called experimental psychologists
Comparative psychologist
Psychologist who study behavioral similarities and differences among animal species
Control group
the participants in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable
Correlation
The existence of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures, or variables
Correlational study
a nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables
Counseling psychologist
a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances
Counselor
a mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving serious mental disorder; for example, marriage counselors, career counselors, or school counselors
Courtesy bias
the tendency of those being surveyed to provide responses that will please and/or not offend the interviewer, moderator, or other participants
Covert behavior
PRIVATE, INTERNAL ACTIVITIES
(EX: DREAMING, REMEMBERING, THINKING)
Cultural psychologist
Studies the ways in which culture affects human behavior.
Cultural relativity
The idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs.
Dependent variable
the variable whose value depends on the independent variable
Determinism
the idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices and actions if all such causes were known
Developmental psychologist
study the growth or development that takes place from the womb to death
Evolutionary psychologist
Investigate how our behavior is guided by patterns that evolved during the long history of humankind.
Experiment
a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships
Experimental group
in a controlled experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable
Extraneous variable
conditions or factors excluded from influencing the outcome of an experiment
Frame of reference
a system of assumptions and standards that sanction behavior and give it meaning
Free will
the idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions
Functionalism
The school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments.
Gender psychologist
Studies differences between females and males.
Gestalt psychology
a school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts
Graphology
study of handwriting
Humanism
An approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals.
Independent variable
the variable in a controlled experiment that the experimenter directly and purposefully manipulates to see how the other variables under study will be affected
Introspection
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings
Learning theorist
Study of how and why learning occurs in humans and animals.
Observer bias
the tendency of an observer to distort observations or perceptions to match his or her expectations
Observer effect
changes in a person's behavior brought about by an awareness of being observed
overt behavior
DIRECTLY OBSERVABLE ACTIONS AND RESPONSES
Palmistry
False system that claims that lines on hands reveal personality traits and predict the future.
Personality theorist
STUDY PERSONALITY TRAITS, MOTIVATION, AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
Phrenology
Study of character as revealed by the shape of the head
Placebo
an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent
Placebo effect
Changes in behavior due to a participant's expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect.
Population
the entire group of objects or individuals considered for a survey
Positive psychology
the study of human strengths, virtues, and effective functioning
Pseudopsychology
any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior
Psychiatric social worker
a mental health professional trained to apply social science principles to help patients in clinics and hospitals
Psychiatrist
medical doctor who has specialized in treating psychological disorders
Psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
Psychoanalyst
a mental health professional (usually a medical doctor) trained to practice psychoanalysis
Psychodynamic theory
Freudian theory that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives (often sexual) that influence behaviors
Psychologist
a person highly trained in the methods, factual knowledge, and theories of psychology
Psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Random assignment
a procedure that uses a random event to assign people to the experimental or control group
Representative sample
a small, randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole population
Repression
an unconscious process that excludes unacceptable thoughts and feelings from awareness and memory
Research method
a systematic approach to answering scientific questions
Scientific observation
An empirical investigation structured to answer questions about the world in a systematic and intersubjective fashion (observations can be reliably confirmed by multiple observers)
Self image
Total subjective perception of one's body and personality (another term for self-concept).
Self actualization
The ongoing process of fully developing one's personal potential
Self evaluation
process of judging one's own performance or behavior
Self fulfilling prophecy
an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.
Sensation and perception psychologist
Psychologist who discern the world through their senses
Social norms
Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group.
Social psychologist
focus on social rules and roles, how groups affect attitudes and behavior and how each of us is affected by other people
Stimulus
agent of change in the internal or external environment that evokes a response
Structuralism
the school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements
Survey method
the use of public polling techniques to answer psychological questions
Unconscious
contents of the mind that are beyond awareness, especially impulses and desires not directly known to a person
Uncritical acceptance
The tendency to believe generally positive or flattering descriptions of oneself.
Psychoanalytic approach
originated with Sigmund Freud, who emphasized unconscious motivations and conflicts, and the importance of early childhood experiences.
Structuralism
early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind
Functionalism
William James's school of thought that stressed the adaptive and survival value of behaviors
Gestalt Psychology
Study of human conciens cant be broken down into element because study of the mind as a whole is different than the sum of the parts.
Creator: Max Wertheimer
Humanistic Approach
Focuses on positive human qualities, capacity for self-actualization, free will. Developed in responce to Behaviorists & Psychodynamic approaches (Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow)
Behaviorism
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science and (2) emphasizes observabable behavior that can be objectively measured. Emerged from the pioneering work of Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, and B.F. Skinner.
Introspection
Wilhelm Wundt's method of having trained observers report on their conscious, moment-to-moment reactions
The unconscious
According to Sigmund Freud, the unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.
Self-actualization
according to Abraham Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
Father of Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt
The Animal Mind (Textbook)
Margaret Washburn's interest in animal psychology led her to write
First woman to be awarded a Ph. D. in psychology
Margaret Washburn in 1894
First African American female awarded a Ph.D in psychology?
Inez Beverly Prosser
Principles of Psychology
Written by William James and published in 1890. Took 12 yrs to write.
"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select....."
Qoute from John B. Watson