Muscle cramps and tetany
Risk factors for development of tumor lysis syndrome include a high white blood cell count at diagnosis, large tumor burden, sensitivity to chemotherapy, and high proliferative rate. In addition to the described metabolic abnormalities, children may develop a spectrum of clinical symptoms, including flank pain, lethargy, nausea and vomiting, muscle cramps, pruritus, tetany, and seizures. Respiratory distress and cyanosis occur with hyperleukocytosis. Thrombocytopenia and sepsis occur with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Upper extremity edema and neck vein distention occur with superior vena cava syndrome.
White blood cell count, 3,000/mm3; hemoglobin, 11.5 g/dl
Chemotherapy is the mainstay of therapy for extensive local or disseminated neuroblastoma. The drugs of choice are vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, etoposide, ifosfamide, and carboplatin. These cause immunosuppression, so the laboratory values will indicate a low white blood cell count and hemoglobin.
Cranial nerve palsies
Even with children who are long-term survivors after treatment for a brain tumor, residual disabilities, such as short stature, cranial nerve palsies, sensory defects, motor abnormalities (especially ataxia), intellectual deficits, dysphagia, dysgraphia, and behavioral problems, may occur. Anorexia is not a residual disability.
7th EditionJulie S Snyder, Mariann M Harding 6th EditionJulie S Snyder, Mariann M Harding