Critics of the American media argue that the news media have a dual obligation to:
present news that reflects a more balanced picture of the overall crime problem and reduce their presentation of sensational crimes
Like the family, schools, organized religion, the media, and the law, criminal justice is a (n):
institution of social contract
A _______ is charging a document specifying that an offense has been committed by a person or persons named or described
A (n) _______ outlines the formal charge or charges, the law or laws that have been violated, and the evidence to support the charge or charges.
The purpose of the _______________ for a judge is to determine whether there is probably cause to believe that the defendant committed the crime or crimes with which he or she is charged
The primary purpose of the _________ is to hear the formal information or indictment and to allow the defendant to enter a plea.
About how many percent of criminal defendants plead guilty to the charges against them, in an arrangement called plea bargaining?
Cases that are not resolved through plea bargaining or by a jury trial are decided by a judge in a
Because there is a considerable conflict and confusion between different agencies of criminal justice, an accurate definition of American criminal justice may be to call it:
A non system
During the middle Ages in Europe, people commonly believed that guilt of innocence could be determined through
Trial by ordeal
A (n) ______ is any standard or rule regarding what human beings should or should not think, say or do under given circumstances
A typical ______ definition of crime is "an intentional violation of the criminal law or penal code, committed without defense or excuse and penalized b the state"
The term ______ refers to criminal conduct - specifically, intentional or criminally negligent action or inaction that causes harm
If a person does not want to commit a crime but is forced to do so against his or her will, he or she committed the crime:
In most American jurisdictions, the upper age limit for juvenile delinquency is ____, and the lower limit is usually ______.
Any record of crimes - such as offenses known to the police, arrests, convictions or commitments to prison - can be considered a _______, or an estimate of crimes committed
The practice of counting only the most serious offense in a multiple-crime event is a feature of the:
Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
The _______ is/are a collection of crime statistics and other law enforcement information published annually under the title Crime in the United States
Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
A (n) ________ is an act that is illegal for a juvenile but would not be a crime if committed by an adult, such as truancy or running away from home
For many crime victims, ____ is/are the most burdensome and lasting consequence of their victimization
It was the common- plea decisions made by judges in eyre that formed the body of legal precedent that became know as the
In case law, the decision becomes a potential basis, or _____, for deciding the outcomes of similar cases in the future
Most of the procedural, or due process rights, given to criminal suspects or defendants in the U.S. are found in
The Bill of Rights
The Supreme Court did not interpret the 14th amendment as incorporating the Bill of Rights until:
A _____ is written order from a court directing law enforcement officers to conduct a search or to arrest a person
In 1969, The Supreme Court in this case limited the scope of searches incidednt to an arrest
Chimel v California
This is more than a gut feeling because it includes the ability to articulate reasons for the suspicion
This is evidence that outweighs the opposing evidence, or sufficient evidence to overcome doubt or speculation
Preponderance of evidence.
In Weems v United States ( 1910), the Court stated three general findings regarding cruel and unusual punishment. To which amendments do these findings apply?
Which theory is base on the belief that criminals are physiologically different from non criminals
The basis of society, as well as the origin of punishments, and the right to punish is
the social contract
Low levels of the brain neurotransmitter ______ have been found in impulsive murders and arsonists.
According to Merton, ____ pursue the cultural goal of wealth only through legitimate institutional means
According to Merton, ____ do not actively pursuer the culutural goal of wealth (they are willing to settle of less) but follow the legitimate institutional means anyway.
Sutherlands ______ stated that person who become criminal do so because of contacts with criminal patterns and isolation from non-criminal patterns
Differential association theory
From the perspective of _____, people are expected to commit crime and delinquency unless they are prevented from doing so
social control theory
What is the commission of crime subsequent to the first criminal act and the acceptance of a criminal label?
A problem with labeling theory is that it tends to ______ the importance of the official labeling process
What assumes that society is based primarily on disagreements between competeing interest groups- for instance, the righ against the poor, management against labor, whites against minorities
What suggests that the solution to all social problems, including crime , is the transformation of human beings, mutual dependence, reduction of class structures, the creation of communities of caring people, and universal social justices?
What focuses on women's experiences and ways of knowing because, in the past, men's experiences have been taken as the norm and generalized to the population?
According to Peel, the main function of the police was to prevent crime by ____ of the community
Earlier in American history, two forms of police protection began to evolve - the constable - watch system in the villages, towns and cities, and the _____ in rural areas
One similarity between the slave patrols and constable watch systems was that
people could hire others to perform their duties for them