54 terms

Cardiovascular System [chapter 11]

(CVS=cardiovascular system) (BV=blood vessel) (BP=blood pressure) (HB=heart beat)
STUDY
PLAY
major FUNCTION of CVS
TRANSPORTATION by BLOOD;
distributes blood all over in body
beating HEART
provides BLOOD MOVEMENT
what CVS CARRIES & is vital for HOMEOSTASIS
oxygen, nutrients, cell wastes, hormones
VASCULAR system
closed transport system where BLOOD CIRCULATES inside the BLOOD VESSELS
3 BLOOD VESSEL TYPES
arteries/arterioles,
capillaries,
veins/venules
(1) Arteries/Arterioles
carry blood AWAY from heart
-conducting vessel
(2) Capillaries
WHERE nutrients&gas EXCHANGE
-CONNECT smaller arteries
(3) Veins/Venules
carry blood TOWARD the heart
&DRAIN the TISSUES
-conducting vessel
RED = artREies
= indicates oxygen-rich blood
BLUE = Veins
= indicates oxygen-depleted, carbon dioxide-rich blood
largest Artery
Aorta
ARTERY consists of:
SMOOTH MUSCLE that CONSTRICTS to regulate blood pressure/flow
OXYGENATED& high pressure;
THICK elastic walls
arteries
CAPILLARY WALLS
ONE cell thick- EASY ALLOWANCE for gas&nutrient EXCHANGE with tissue fluid
VEINS consist of:
LESS smooth muscle& connective tissue
carry DEOXYGENATED blood;
THINNER, LESS elastic walls;
larger LUMEN
(exception:lungs)
veins
VALVES
prevent BACKWARD flow of blood when closed
Tunica INTIMA
provides FRICTION-REDUCING lining
Tunica MEDIA
made of MUSCLE& ELASTIC tissue
Tunica EXTERNA
outer covering
found in the THORAX/chest
heart
layers of the heart
-EPOcardium
-MYOcardium
-EPIcardium
PERIcardium
OUTER membrane with LUBRICATING fluid
4 heart CHAMBERS
two UPPER- ATRIA
two lower- VENTRICLE
chamber RECEIVING blood
atria
chamber PUMPING/DISCHARGING blood
ventricle
septum
WALL dividing right&left sides
types of valves
ATRIOVentricular
TRIcuspid
BIcuspid
Chordae Tendinae
ARTERIES involved in CARDIAC CIRCULATION
coronary arteries
Blood Pressure GREATEST in:
AORTA
BP- WALL of LEFT VENTRICLE
THICKER than the right ventricle& pumps blood to ENTIRE body
BP Decrease
as cross-sectional area of ARTERIES/arterioles INCREASES
HB: the CONTRACTION of heart chambers
systole (up)
HB: relaxation
diastole (down)
due to CLOSING of atrioventricular& then semilunar VALVES
lup-dub HEART SOUNDS
Blood Pressure
pumping of HEART ACCOUNTS for the BLOOD FLOW in ARTERIES
Decrease in BP
with distance from heart
PACEMAKER
(sinoatrial) SA NODE
-starts each heartbeat& sets pace
AV Node
where the IMPULSE spreads through the ATRIA which CONTRACTS
-impulse DELAYED to allow CONTRACTION to FINISH
quarts of blood pumped in a day
6000
Circle of Willis
ALTERNATE ROUTE which provides oxygen to the brain (blood needed continuously)
heart murmur
abnormal heartsound resulting from leaky valve problems
-lup swish dup
BV renal
kidney
BV femoral& brachial
thigh& arm
BV pulmonary
lungs
BV hepatic
liver
BV aorta&
vena cava
BV carotid& jugular vein
neck
SA node
how heart knows when to BEAT in RHTHYM
cardiac output
heart rate x stroke volume
blood FLOW in CAPILLARIES
moves SLOWLY to allow NUTRIENT EXCHANGE between blood& tissue
vena cava
largest vein
PULMONARY CIRCUIT
-carries CO2-RICH blood to LUNGS
-RETURNS OXYGENATED blood to the heart
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
-carries CO2-RICH blood to ALL EXCEPT LUNGS
-RETURNS CO2-RICH blood