alliance between Russia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of the established order; formed by the most conservative monarchies of Europe during the Congress of Vienna.
unsuccessful 1825 political revolt in Russia by mid-level army officers advocating reforms.
Crimean War (1854 -1856)
began with a Russian attack on the Ottoman Empire; France and Britain joined on the Ottoman side; resulted in a Russian defeat because of Western industrial might; led to Russian reforms under Alexander II.
Emancipation of the serfs
Alexander II in 1861 ended serfdom in Russia; serfs did not obtain political rights and had to pay the aristocracy for lands gained.
local political councils created as part of Alexander II's reforms; gave middle class professional experience in government but did not influence national policy.
constructed during the 1870s and 1880s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; increased the Russian role in Asia.
Russian minister of finance (1892 -1903); economic modernizer responsible for high tariffs, improved banking system; encouraged Western investment in industry.
Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class; desired radical change in the Russian political and economic system; wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from the West.
political groups that thought the abolition of formal government as a first step to creating a better society; became important in Russia and was the modern world's first large terrorist movement.
Lenin (Vladimir Ilych Ulyanov)
Russian Marxist leader; insisted on the importance of disciplined revolutionary cells.
literally the majority party, but actually a minority group; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by Lenin.
Russian Revolution of 1905
defeat by Japan resulted marked by strikes by urban workers and insurrections among the peasantry; resulted in temporary reforms.
Russian national assembly created as one of the reforms following the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Nicholas II.
Russian minister who introduced reforms intended to placate the peasantry after the Revolution of 1905; included reduction of land redemption payments and an attempt to create a market- oriented peasantry.
agricultural entrepreneurs who utilized the Stolypin reforms to buy more land and increase production.
commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by mid-19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West.
studies of Western science and technology beginning during the 18th century; based on texts available at the Dutch Nagasaki trading center.
American naval officer; in 1853 insisted under threat of bombardment on the opening of ports to American trade.
power of the emperor restored with Emperor Mutsuhito in 1868; took name of Meiji, the Enlightened One; ended shogunate and began a reform period.
Japanese parliament established as part of the constitution of 1889; able to advise government but not control it.
huge industrial combines created in Japan during the 1890s. Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895): fought in Korea between Japan and Qing China; Japanese victory demonstrated its arrival as new industrial power.