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Economic philosophy in which England established the colonies to provide raw materials to the mother country; the colonies receive manufactured goods in return.

Iroquois confederation

The league of Indian tribes in the Northeast that fought with the English in the French-Indian War and supported the Loyalists in the America Revolution.


18th century concept which held that God created the world according to rational laws and that he was like a clockmaker who would not interefere in the natural order of things.

Stamp Act

prior to the American Revolution, the British instituted the __ __ which taxed all transactions involving paper without colonial consent. No other act outraged all 13 colonies than this one.

Navigation Acts

trade laws administered by GB in the 1600's to enforce mercantilism on the Amer. Colonies

Great Awakening

Major religious revival (1750-1770) prior to the American Revolution that furthered individualism, established authority, and American nationalism.

Albany Congress

during the French and Indian war, Ben Franklin attempted to unify the colonies behind G.B. in its war against France.

Boston Tea Party

organized by the sons of liberty, the __ __ __ eventually forced the British to pass the Coercive Acts in 1775.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

First constitution in the colonies drafted that stated a government's authority rests upon the consent of the governed and expressed the will of the majority.

Proclamation of 1763

A line drawn by the British gov't that forbade colonist from settling the western lands won after the French and Indian War.

John Locke

Enlightenment philosopher whose ideas influenced T. Jefferson's Declaration of Independence and Madison's work on the Bill of rights; specifically his ideas on Life, Liberty, and Property.

Townshend Acts

named after the British political leader who wrongly believed that this external "tax" or "duty" would be accepted by colonies.

Virginia House of Burgesses

First of the many mini legislatures created by the Colonies that started the tradition of Salutary Neglect and home rule.


prevalent Puritan religious belief centered in the New England Colonies that believed only the "elect" were predestined for salvation.

Boston Massacre

A 1770 clash between townspeople and Irish soldiers ordered to guard British customs houses

Anne Hutchinson

Puritan dissenter that was banished by Governor Winthrop for teaching antinomianism.

Halfway covenant

Used by Puritan Churches to bolster attendance but also keep political leadership under the control respectable families. Conversion needed but not "regeneration" to be a member of the congregation.

Committees of Correspondence

organized by Massachusetts in 1772 __ __ __ purpose was to keep a close watch on the British and report any violations on individual rights.

Bacon's Rebellion

Disgruntled Virginia (Chesapeake) colonial farmers attempted to overthrow Gov. Berkeley in 1676 because of economic hardship and perceived failure with Indian raids and lack of women that could be married.

Midnight Judges

John Adam's appointment of Fedearlist party members to federal courts before Thomas Jefferson took office in 1800.

Great compromise

Also known as the Connecticut compromise, the __ __ established a bicameral legislature with proportional representation in the lower house (House Rep) and equal representation in the upper house [2 senators each state]

Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions

issued by Jefferson and Madison in response to President Adam's passage of the Alien & Sedition Acts, the __ & __ __ advocated states rights to nullify laws the considered to be un-constitutional.

National Bank

Alexander Hamilton's ___ __ was established to improve the national economy, but it also created a constitutional crisis on interpretation of the US constitution.

Shay's Rebellion

debt ridden farmers mounted a protest to foreclosures led by revolutionary war veteran's that demonstrated the weaknesses of the Articles of confederation.

Pinckney's Treaty

1795 Treaty with Spain fearful of Jay Treaty with GB might threaten Spanish holdings in the West. Spain permitted US navigation rights on the Mississippi and conceded its right to lands east of the Mississippi.

Republican Motherhood

After the election of 1800 Jeffersonian promoted this as the ideal for women to raise their children with idealism of the American nation.

Olive Branch Petition

the 2nd continental congress sent this to King George III in hopes of reconciliation.


Important battle of the Revolutionary War. The American victory encouraged Frane to aid colonial independence from Britain.

XYZ Affair

diplomatic incident involving the US and France in 1797-98. French officials of the Directory dubbed by _ _ _ demand tribute money in exchange for not raiding American shipping.

Articles of Confederation

First US government which was ineffectual in dealing with the nation's financial and political problems because in lacked coercive power.

Jay Treaty

the unpopular treaty with GB 1794-95 that was supposed to stop British impressments but did not. Brits did withdraw soldiers from the Northwest Territory.

Whiskey Rebellion

Western Pennsylvania Farmers failed uprising against the Washington administration. They took up arms as a result of Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey in 1794.

Lewis and Clark

In 1804 Corps of Discovery surveyed and made scientific observation of the newly acquired Louisiana territory.

Alexander Hamilton

Secretary of Treasury under Washington and perhaps the greatest administrive genius in US history. He was the father of the 1st national Bank, pro industry, nationalist, and founder of the Federalist Party.

The Federalist Papers

Jay, Madison, and Hamilton published a series of letters under the pseudonym "Publius" to help grow support for the ratification of the Constitution.

Citizen Genet

French ambassador sent covertly to gain American support for Revolutionary France in its war against Britain. His actions angered Washington who had him expelled.

Hartford Convention

Meeting of New England Federalist who were opposed to the War of 1812 and wanted to seek a separate peace with Britain even if it meant seceding from the Union.

War hawks

Henry Clay and John C Calhoun were called __ __ for their support of the war of 1812 (Now a common term used for pro-war sentiment)

Old National Road (Cumberland Road)

First of the internal improvements provided by congress in 1806 to help the colonization of the west. A toll bill linked to the road was vetoed by Monroe.

Second great Awakening

Religious revivals between 1800-1840 that lead to rise of major reform movements and utopian/religious sects like the Shakers, Mormons, Millerites,

Corrupt Bargain

the alleged deal between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay in the Election of 1824 that stole the election from Andrew Jackson

American system 1819

This was HENRY CLAY'S three part plan to improve the national economy through a 2nd National Bank, Internal Improvements, and Protective Tariffs.

Missouri compromise

HENRY CLAY proposed this bill in 1820 to solve the devisive issue of the expansion of slavery which threatened to upset the political balance in the Senate. This bill set the tone for the congressional actions prior to the civil War.


senator from Kentucky called the Great Compromiser because he was the author of the Missouri compromise and other major compromises between 1820-1850.

Era of Good Feelings

Bring period of nationalism and patriotism that followed the American over the British in the War of 1812. It was marked by a spirit of cooperation of economic matters, internal improvements, and westward expansion.


Harrison's victory over Tecumseh (Shawnee) in Indiana in 1811 became the slogan of his presidential bid in 1840.

Alexis de Tocqueville

French liberal politician who observed the evolution of American political thought, customs, and social interaction in the 1830's. his book Democracy in America is still considered one the most accurate primary sources on American culture.

Monroe Doctrine

Announcement made during the Era of Good Feelings because the US feared that the Concert of Europe might intervene in Latin American revolutions-Us stood opposed to any further colonization in western hemisphere and would not intervene in European affairs.

John Marshall

Most important Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who kept the Federalist ideals alive long after the party faded into history

Marbury vs. Madison

(Marshall's) Landmark supreme court case that established the principle of judicial review

McCulloch vs. Maryland

Established the principle of implied powers and upheld the constitutionality of the bank. "the power to tax is the power to destroy."

Logrolling (Pork Barrel Politics)

Mutual assistance in the passage of legislation so that one member of Congress votes for a colleague's bill in return for his/her support on their bill.

Horace Mann

during the age of reform 1825-1859 he was an outspoken reformer who focused on education

Doctrine of Separate Spheres

19th century belief that men were superior in worldly pursuits and women were superior in their moral influences.

McGuffy Readers

1836-1870 these were used by schools to expose children to a common curriculum that preached honesty, industry (hard work), and patriotism.

Cotton Whigs and Conscience Whigs

Southern Whigs who support slavery and Northern Whigs who opposed slavery.

Onieda Community

socio religious group of "perfectionists". Began in 1848 its members shared property, complex marriage, and raising of the children in communal form to reach a utopian society.

Free Soil party 1847-1848

political movement that opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories

Nat Turner

Slave who led a bloody revolt in 1831 and who believed he was divinely inspired to kill his master and other slave owners. 60 men, women, and children were killed by his hand. Southern states wrote more restrictive slave laws limiting the movement of slaves

Peculiar institution

the historical term used to identify slavery prior to the Civil War.

Manifest Destiny

An almost religious belief prior to the Mexican American War that the US should possess the N. American continent from east to west.

Fugitive Slave Law

the most controversial portion of the compromise of 1850. It allowed southern slave holders to retrieve escaped slaves in the north

Wilmot Proviso

this bill was presented during the Mexican-American War. It stipulated that none of the territory acquired should be opened to slavery

Know nothing Party

Secret Nativist political party that opposed Immigration during the 1840's and early 1850's. Officially called the American Party

Pet Banks

Andrew Jackon (Old Hickory) opposition to National Bank (Henry Clay) prompted him to remove Federal deposits and place them in State Banks or __ __.

Seneca Falls

1st national meeting for women's suffrage held in 1848. Elizabeth Cady Stanton issued the "Declaration of Sentiments" calling for the equality of the sexes.

Whig Party

the political party formed as the anti-Jackson party by Henry Clay and supporters of the American System, and southern "states rights" advocates.

Robert Fulton

Creator of the American steamboat who started the era of commercial steam navigation.

Nullification Crisis

1832-33 was over the tariff policy of the Fed. Gov't during Jackson's presidency which prompted South Carolina to threaten the use of NULLIFICATION, possible secession and Andrew Jackson's determination to end with military force.

Henry David Thoreau

A transcendentalist who wrote the essay "civil disobedience" which outlined his protest to the Mexican American war. This essay later influenced non-violent protests by Gandhi and M.L. King Jr.

Underground Railroad

A network of safe houses used by abolitionist to aid the escape of Southern Slaves into the North.

Frederick Douglas

escaped slave who became a leading figure in the anti-slavery movement.

Compromise of 1850

controversial bill which allowed CA to enter the union as a free state while agreeing to some southern demands on slavery issues.


anti slavery activists who demanded the immediate end of slavery.

Mexican/American War

A war fought on the principle of "manifest destiny" and supported by southern planters desiring to expand the cotton culture. Was opposed by the northeast who thought war was "unrighteous and gave the south more political power.

"54 40 or Fight"

Slogan used by pro-war westerners wanting a war with Great Britain for all of the Oregon territory in the 1840's.

Samuel Slater

Induced by American textile industries, he left England with the memorized knowledge on how to build a textile factory

Panics of 1819, 1837, 1857, 1873, 1883, 1893

Economic Depression brought about by over speculation in land or rail roads on a cycle of 20 to 10 years.

American system

this was Henry Clay's three part plan to improve the US economic condition through the 2nd National Bank, internal improvements and protective tariffs.

American Temperance society

First national organization to protest the abuse of alcohol. They demanded the "total" abstinence and pressured churches to expel members who condoned alcohol.

Dorethea Dix

Unitarian Sunday School teacher who during the age of reform worked for better treatment for the mentally insane.


Anti-slavery (abolitionist) newspaper founded by New Englander William Lloyd Garrison/Liberator was outspoken and controversial because of their unwavering stand on slavery.


Term used to describe the regions (Northeast, South, & West) and differing economic, social, and cultural systems and interest prior the Civil War.


bloodiest single day of fighting during the Civil War resulted in a draw and prompted Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.

Emancipation Proclamation

Issued by Lincoln, the __ ___ freed slaves only in the states under rebellion.

King Cotton

term used to describe the dominance of the South's cash crop (Cotton) on politics, agriculture, and society prior to the Civil War in the Ante-Bellum South.

Wade Davis Bill

Radical reconstruction plan with the far reaching punitive measures against the southern states and their eventual readmission into the union.


northern democrats who opposed the civil war and were also referred to as peace democrats.

Anaconda Plan

the Union (Northern) plan devised by General Winfield Scott to blockade the south and restrict its trade to win the war.

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Stephen Douglas' attempt to allow popular sovereignty to decide the slavery issue in the territories in exchange for the Trans-Continental Rail Road linking California and Illinois.

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Seven debates for the Illinois senate in 1858. This was the last peaceful debate over slavery prior to the Civil War.

Black Codes

passed by southern "Johnson" governments to force Freedmen back on the plantations.

Stephen A Douglas

(the little giant) Senator and presidential candidate form ILL. Who authored the Kansas-Nebraska Act to benefit his political career.

Bleeding Kansas

Conflict over the expansion of slavery into the Kansas Territory during its transition to statehood. Free-Staters battled slavery supporters with violence.

John Brown

Fanatic anti-slavery leader who attempted to start a massive slave uprising by seizing the federal armory at Harpers Ferry in 1859.

Fall of Atlanta

Major turning point of the civil War when Sherman's Union Army victory insured the re-election of Abe Lincoln

Uncle tom's Cabin

Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in response to the Fugitive slave Law. __ __ __ is considered to have been one of the most effective Anti-slavery statements made prior to the Civil War.

Brooks/Sumner Episode

A bloody altercation between a southern congressman and a northern senator in the senate chamber in 1856.

Dred Scott Case

1857 Supreme court case that developed the fact that slaves were property not persons entitled to constitutional rights. It was the second Supreme Court decision to declare a law unconstitutional- Missouri Compromise

Andrew Johnson

vice president who succeeded Lincoln after the assassination and was the first president to be impeached

Forgettable Presidents

term applied to the US presidents between Grant and Roosevelt. (Hayes, Cleveland, Garfield, Arthur, Harrison, McKinnley) Because business men dominated the National scene.

Compromise of 1877

The __ __ __ resolved the disputed election of 1876 between Sam Tilden and Rutherford B Hayes.

Gospel of Wealth

Belief that those blessed with great wealth earned it through Darwinist competition but also were obligated to improve society and mankind through philanthropy.


A southern supporter of northern "Carpet Bag" governments during Reconstruction in the South


A supporter of the Republican Party during the Gilded Age who supported the Spoils system, Protective Tariffs, and HardMoney; he opposed reform


The period following the Civil War in which the devastated Southern States were slowly resotred economically, politcally, and socially.

Jim Crow Laws

Laws enforcing segregation or conrol of Blacks in such a manner as to make them unequal after reconstruction


"Detective" agency or private police hired by the Feder Government to guard the President prior to 1865 and used by business owners to intimidate Unions with strong arm tactics.

Knights of Labor

early American labor union that failed to achieve economic and social acceptance because its members were unskilled, expendable and "un-American." The union was prone to violence, linked to communism, and anarchism.

Waving the Bloody Shirt

An expression used as a vote getting stratagem by the Republicans during the election of 1876 to offset charges of corruption by blaming the Civil War on the Democrats.


A 19th century term for political corruption during the Gilded Age. Which included bribery scandals, abuses of the spoils system and political cronyism.

Tweed Ring

During the Gilded Age it was the notorious Tammany Hall political machine led by "Boss" William Marcy Tweed. In two years it defrauded the city of $200,000,000 1868-71.

Dawes Act

Bill that attempted to pacify the plains Indians by giving them land to farm. May Indians sold their land for alcohol.

Pendleton Act

This act sought to end the abuses of the spoils system and was passed by Grover Cleveland. It mandated civil service exams for employment in the government.


Paper money issued during the civil war to help finance the war effort and stabilize the economy.

Vertical and Horizontal Integration

Two forms of monopolistic system used by the "captains of industry" in the U.S. from the 1870's to 1900 to control production and sale. (Vertical= mine to market)(Horizontal= specialized in one particular aspect of business such as refining of raw materials)


Southern political movement that sought and did return "home rule" to the southern states during reconstruction.

Thomas Nast

Political cartoonist who's work exposed the abuses of the Tweed ring, criticized the South's attempts to impede Reconstruction, and lampooned labor unions. Created the animal symbols of the Democratic and Republican Parties.

Robber Barons

The term used to describe the Gilded Age monopolist for their Social Darwinist practices who reffered to themselves as "Captains of Industry."


The Patrons of Husbandry or farmers organized aginst rail road abuses. Similar group to the Farmers Alliance.

Social Darwinism

19th century of belief that evolutionary ideas theorized by Charles Darwin could be applied to society.

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