96 terms

CJ Bank #5

For most people, the only personal experience they have with the criminal justice process is contact with:
Local police officer
John Broderick classified police officers by their degree of commitment to maintaining order and their respect for due process. Three of these classifications are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
Which of the following is unquestionably the most time-consuming and resource-intensive task of any police agency?
Patrols that are "systematically unsystematic" and observant in an attempt to both prevent and ferret out crime on their beats are known as random or ____ patrol.
In ____ patrol, officers are given guidance on how to use their patrol time, which is often based on the results of crime analyses that identify problem areas.
When an entire patrol section is instructed to make numerous traffic stops and field interrogations, the practice is referred to as ____ patrol.
With DNA profiling, a unique genetic profile can be derived from evidence found at the scene of a crime or on a victim. Name one of these types of evidence:
Hair OR blood OR semen
Each year, nearly twice as many people are ____ as are ____.
Killed in automobile accidents; murdered
Researchers discovered that ____ of citizens wait 5-10 minutes to call the police, which prevent police from catching the criminal at the scene.
90 percent
One of the interesting findings of foot patrol research was that foot patrol officers were better able to deal with:
Minor annoyances—rowdy youths, panhandlers, and abandoned cars—that irritate citizens.
With community policing:
Citizens share responsibility for their community's safety.
The crime triangle is a view of crime and disorder as an interaction among three variables, which are:
Victim, offender, and location.
What are the three I's of police selection?
Integrity Interaction Intelligence
The movement to limit the discretion of police officers is the result of:
Abuses of that discretion.
Police officers cannot make an arrest for every violation of law—that is, they cannot provide
full enforcement.
The practice of relying on the judgment of the police leadership and rank-and-file officers to decide which laws to enforce is referred to as:
Selective enforcement.
In cases involving lesser felonies, misdemeanors, and petty offenses, police officers are more likely to:
Do Nothing
The ____ the complainant, the more likely a patrol officer is to use formal procedures to report and investigate a crime.
More affluent
For a long time, police looked at domestic violence calls as ____ when, in fact, they should have been treated as ____.
Peacekeeping activities; criminal matters
Approximately ____ women are victims of domestic violence each year.
1 million
Which of the following has/have always made the police the major respondents to domestic violence calls?
The availability of 24-hour service
Racial profiling often occurs during ____, where police justify stopping a car because of minor equipment or moving traffic violations that might otherwise be ignored.
pretextual stops
Which of the following is defined as the harmful physical and emotional outcomes that occur when the requirements of a job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the employee?
Organizational change
Which of the following is a measure of coercion beyond what is necessary to control participants in a conflict?
Excessive force
A court of ____jurisdiction has the authority to hear a case when it is first brought to court.
Which of the following types of jurisdiction is the court's power to hear a particular type of case?
Subject matter
In highly controversial cases, all of the judges in a circuit may sit together and hear a case in what is known as a(n):
en banc hearing.
Trial courts of ____ jurisdiction are sometimes referred to generally as "inferior trial courts" or simply as "lower courts."
Which of the following is the attempt to "correct" the personality and behavior of convicted offenders through educational, vocational, or therapeutic treatment and to return them to society as law-abiding citizens?
The ____ is a community's chief law enforcement official and is responsible primarily for the protection of society.
When prosecutors elect not to prosecute, they enter a:
notation of nolle prosequi.
The ____ mandate(s) that a prosecutor provide defense counsel with any exculpatory evidence in the prosecutor's possession.
rules of discovery
The role of defense lawyers is to
provide the best possible legal counsel and advocacy within the legal and ethical limits of the profession.
Public defenders commonly spend ____ with their clients.
five to ten minutes
Which of the following is a judicial selection process in which the governor appoints judges from a list of qualified lawyers, which is compiled by a nonpartisan nominating commission composed of both lawyers and other citizens?
Merit selection
Of the crimes that are recorded by the police, only about ____ are "cleared by arrest."
20 percent
After suspects officially become defendants, they are brought before a lower-court judge for
an initial appearance.
The Supreme Court has ruled that anyone arrested without a warrant may be held no longer than ____ before a judge decides whether the arrest was justified
48 hours
Which of the following is usually a monetary guarantee deposited with the court that is supposed to ensure that the suspect or defendant will appear at a later stage in the criminal justice process?
Holding suspects or defendants in jail without giving them an opportunity to post bail, because of the threat they pose to society, is called:
preventive detention.
Which of the following is simply a release secured by a suspect's written promise to appear in court?
Release on own recognizance
The alternative to the grand jury, in states that do not choose to utilize them, is the filing of a(n):
When defendants plead nolo contendre, they:
do not admit guilt but are willing to accept punishment.
State and federal legislative bodies enact ____ that specify appropriate punishments for each statutory offense or class of offense
penal codes
A(n) ____sentence has a fixed minimum and maximum term of incarceration, rather than a set period.
Truth-in-sentencing laws require offenders to serve a substantial portion of their prison sentence, usually ____ of it.
85 percent
Presumptive sentences may be based on sentencing guidelines, which are developed by sentencing commissions comprised of:
both criminal justice professionals and private citizens.
In ____, the legislature determines a sentence range for each crime that is usually based on the seriousness of the crime and the criminal history of the offender.
presumptive sentencing
From biblical times through the eighteenth century, ____ was the dominant justification for punishment.
Which of the following is an effort to do something for victims and their survivors—to return them, as much as possible, to their previous state and to make them "whole" again?
Before the Supreme Court's 1991 decision, ____ were considered irrelevant and potentially inflammatory and were not allowed.
victim-impact statements
Generally, a presentence investigation report (PSI) is prepared by a:
probation officer.
Nearly ____ of state trial court decisions are affirmed on appeal.
80 percent
Before 1968, the only issues the Supreme Court considered in relation to capital punishment concerned:
the means of administering the death penalty.
More than half of the 650 executions that have taken place in the United States since 1977 have occurred in just three states. Name those three states?
Virginia & Texas & Florida
Reductions in sentences for death row inmates, which are granted by a state's governor, are called:
For all intents and purposes, the death penalty today is used more than occasionally in:
few nonwestern countries and a few states in the American South.
A June 2000 poll found that more than ____ of adults nationwide think that at least some innocent people have been wrongly executed since the death penalty was reinstated in the 1970s
80 percent
Research confirms that ____ of capital offenders released from prison have killed again
a small percentage
The closest European forerunner of the modern U.S. prison was known as:
the workhouse.
Most early women's prison employed ____, as distinguished from the ____ of men's prisons.
a family-style living plan; cell-block plan
Originally, big-house prisons:
exploited inmate labor through various links to the free market
One confinement alternative to traditional incarceration is ____, which is the placement of offenders in facilities patterned after ____.
shock incarceration; military boot camps
Which of the following states is the first state to allow female prisoners to work on chain gangs?
Overall, the United States had ____ people incarcerated by the end of 1999
more than two million
Over the last 200 years, Americans have developed a tradition of strong reliance on the prison to control crime. The result is that it:
has never done very well.
When offenders are sentenced to the custody of the department of corrections in most states, they are transported initially to a:
classification facility
Men's prisons are often distinguished from one another by:
security level
In recent years, however, incarceration rates for females in the United States have ____ incarceration rates for males.
grown faster than
Co-correctional prisons are usually____, and security is typically ____.
small; minimum
A(n) ____ is a very short-term (for instance, 24- to 48-hour) holding facility.
A ____ is a facility that holds convicted offenders and unconvicted persons for relatively short periods of up to one year.
Inmates who are vulnerable to assault by other inmates may be designated for:
protective custody.
Most institutions have elaborate____, in which staff learn from inmate informants about the presence of contraband, the potential for disruptions, and other threats to security.
snitch systems
Group counseling is more popular than individual counseling in institutional settings, primarily because:
it is more economical and there are large numbers of inmates who share similar backgrounds and problems
Rather than having inmates attend periodic group sessions (one or two hourly sessions per week), ____encompasses the total living environment of inmates so that the environment continually encourages positive behavioral change.
milieu therapy
We usually think of rehabilitation programs as serving one main objective. Which of the following is that main objective?
To help inmates better themselves
Which of the following states that prisoners should receive no service or program superior to the services and programs?
The less-eligibility principle
Research has determined that although no single type of treatment can be identified as the most effective, one feature that seems to characterize programs that consistently reduce offender recidivism is:
the quality of the program's implementation
A ____is an institutional setting in which people are cut off from the wider society and are expected to live according to institutional rules and procedures.
Total institution
The ____ model holds that the inmate society is shaped by factors external to the prison environment—specifically, the preprison experiences and socialization patterns that inmates bring with them when they enter prison.
Entering the ____ of the prison means finding in the diverse environment of the institution a niche that will accommodate the inmate's unique combination of needs.
private culture
Inmates who adopt the ____ lifestyle are primarily concerned with getting out of prison as soon as possible and avoiding hard time in the process.
doing time
A distinguishing feature of the inmate society in many women's prisons is the presence of:
In women's prisons, the ____ role is occupied by sophisticated professional criminals, who try to do easy time by manipulating other inmates and the staff to their own advantage.
Researchers have observed that the work of correctional officers is characterized by both:
boredom and stimulus overload.
Until the middle of the 20th century, the courts followed a ____ philosophy toward prison matters.
Inmates skilled in legal matters are known as:
jailhouse lawyers.
Ironically, the Eighth Amendment has done little to protect inmates from staff brutality because:
brutality is normally construed as a tort rather than a constitutional issue.
The equal-protection clause under the ____ Amendment has led the Supreme Court to forbid racial discrimination and has led state courts to target gender discrimination.
A high percentage of lawsuits filed by inmates are judged:
frivolous and are therefore dismissed.
The term parole can refer to:
a way of being released from prison before the entire sentence has been served.
Mandatory release is similar to ____ in that people let out under either arrangement ordinarily receive a period of community supervision.
Shifting patterns in prison release indicate the strong emphasis placed on ____ during the 1980s and the use of ____ to structure early-release decisions.
determinate sentencing; statistical guidelines
The results of research on recidivism has indicated that the factor most strongly related to the likelihood of rearrest was:
prior arrest history
One study on recidivism demonstrated that the inmates who adjusted most successfully to prison ____ to life in the free community upon release.
had the most difficulty adjusting