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What have community corrections traditionally emphasized?


What do you call organized and systematic efforts to remove people from the criminal justice process by placing them in programs that offer alternatives to the next, more restrictive stage of processing?


What is the most frequently used sentence in criminal justice?


What is conducted by the probation agency at the request of the judge, usually during the period between the finding, or plea, of guilt and sentencing?

The presentence investigation

What are imposed at the discretion of the judge and probation officials and are designed to address the offender's particular situation?

Special conditions

If a client has violated the conditions of probation, what might the probation agency recommend?


In what are offenders released from prison directly into the community under the supervision of the parole agency?

Straight parole

Who was the first person to implement parole in the United States?

Zebulon Brockway

Whose responsibility is parole revocation?

The parole board

Currently, how many states have abolished early release by discretion of a parole board for all offenders?

14 states and the federal government

How long does ISP usually last?

Six months to two years

Home confinement programs didn't become popular until what became widespread during the 1980s?

Electronic monitoring

What offers a community-based residential facility that is an alternative to jail or prison

Community correctional centers

What are two of the most critical issues surrounding halfway houses?

Community resistance and recidivism

In most U.S. jurisdictions, juveniles are defined as individuals between what ages?

7 and 18

What was an age-old mechanism for dealing with unruly children that served as a primary means for teaching skilled trades to the children of the middle and upper classes

The apprenticeship system

During the late 1800s, what group of new reformers began to advocate instituting a juvenile court to deal with youth problems?

Child savers

What do you call the legal philosophy justifying state intervention in the lives of children?

The doctrine of parens patriae

The major reason for the juvenile court's focus on this is that they have traditionally focused not on the act, but on the whole child.


Which U.S. Supreme Court Case greatly expanded the overall due process protections afforded juveniles within the juvenile court?

In re Gault

In which case did the U.S. Supreme Court rule that delinquency charges must be proven beyond a reasonable doubt where there was a possibility that a youth could be confined in a locked facility?

In re Winship

Actions taken by citizens to respond to delinquency constitute this process that operates outside the official agencies of juvenile justice.

Informal juvenile justice

Regardless of any other factors, as this increases, so will the likelihood of arrest

seriousness of the offense

In which case did the Supreme Court rule that parents or attorneys do not have to be present for juveniles to waive their rights?

Fare v. Michael C.

Diversion can occur at any stage of the juvenile justice process, but it is most often employed before what?


When politically conservative values are dominant in society, the principles and policies of this seem to dominate the operation of criminal justice.

The crime control model

What is the ultimate goal of the crime control model?


If defendants ask for something special, like a trial, what happens to the criminal justice assembly line?

It is slowed down

If defendants aren't satisfied with the outcome of their trial, what do they have the right to do?


A major problem with the crime control model is that a presumption of guilt goes against one of the oldest and most cherished principles of American criminal justice. What is this principle?

Defendants are considered innocent until proven guilty

Due process advocates recognize that there can be no equal justice where the kind of trial a person gets, or whether he/she goes to trial at all, depends substantially on what?

How much money that person has

If the future of law enforcement reflects the principles and policies of the crime control model, then what might you expect?

Broader police discretion

What should be expanded in order to improve the investigative abilities of police?

Community policing

What is the thorniest issue with DNA technology?

How the DNA database will be collected and used

What do advocates of the crime control model consider a luxury and an unnecessary impediment to the efficient operation of the process at any stage, other than perhaps a trial?

Legal representation

Supporters of this maintain that a crafty lawyer may be able to win the freedom of a factually guilty client by means of legal technicality.

Crime control model

According to due process model advocates, what is a critical stage in the administration of justice?

Preliminary hearing

In practice, this is a sham because it has become nothing more than a rubber stamp for the prosecutor.

Grand jury

If the crime control model dominates the future of the administration of justice, what is likely, following the few trials that occur, to be strongly discouraged and limited?


If the due process model dominates the administration of justice in the future, what will there probably be no limitations on?

The right to appeal

What is participatory justice a form of?

Restorative justice

What is a strategy in which disappointment is expressed for the offender's actions, the offender is shamed and punished, and there is a concerted effort on the part of the community to for give the offender and bring him/her back into society?

Re-integrative shaming

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