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25 terms

TPP (Ch. 9) Neural Stem Cells

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Neuron
an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through chemical and electrical signals
nervous
system that consists of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia.
the cell body (soma), dendrites, axon
What are the 3 parts of a neuron?
soma
the central part of the neuron
dendrites
cellular extensions with many branches, and metaphorically this overall shape and structure is referred to as a tree.
dendrites
where the majority of input to the neuron occurs
axon
where a majority of the output of information occurs
axon
The ___ carries nerve signals away from the soma down to the ___ terminal where the synapse is located.
axon
The __ is surrounded by the myelin sheath.
myelin sheath
acts as an insulator for the axon so electrical currents can travel faster down the axon.
All-or-None principle
if a neuron is going to 'fire' (send an electrical signal), it must do so completely. This also means that signals are not measured by their intensity, but rather the number of impulses per second.
Multiple Sclerosis
Autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord

-- Caused by inflammation which damages the myelin sheath
Parkinson's Disease
Degenerative disease that most notably affects victim's motor skills and speech

--caused by the insufficient production and activity of dopamine in the midbrain.
Alzheimer's
a form of dementia which is currently incurable, degenerative, and terminal.

--Cause of disease is unknown; thought to be associated with plaques and tangles in the brain.
Degenerative Disorders of the Central Nervous System
Examples:
Huntington's disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Fatal familial insomnia
Friedreich's ataxia
Prion diseases
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Hereditary spastic paraplegia
Rett syndrome
Neural Stem Cell
a single cell with the ability to:
-proliferate
-exhibit self-maintenance or self-renewal over the lifetime of the organism
-generate a large number of clonally related progeny,
-retain its multilineage potential over time
-produce new cells in response to injury or disease
acute
Type of Brain Disorder: Damage restricted to a region, multiple neural cell types must be replaced (i.e., stroke, spinal injury, CNS injury.
chronic
Type of Brain Disorder: progressive neuro-degeneration requiring the replacement of all neural cell types in large brain regions.
Neurogenetic Disorder
caused by a mutation of a gene or a different form of a gene that specifically affects the brain. They can be inherited or caused by environmental factors.
Some examples are: Tay-Sachs and Wilsons Disease
action potential
Electrical signal reaches axon terminal =>
calcium ions released
"Action potential" =>
neurotransmitters released
Calcium ions released =>
excites/inhibits receptors
Neurotransmitters travel across "synaptic gap" and bind to receptors on dendrites =>
reuptake
Receptors receive neurotransmitters =>
reuptake
where unused transmitters are brought back into the axon terminal