a single cell with the ability to: -proliferate -exhibit self-maintenance or self-renewal over the lifetime of the organism -generate a large number of clonally related progeny, -retain its multilineage potential over time -produce new cells in response to injury or disease
Type of Brain Disorder: Damage restricted to a region, multiple neural cell types must be replaced (i.e., stroke, spinal injury, CNS injury.
Type of Brain Disorder: progressive neuro-degeneration requiring the replacement of all neural cell types in large brain regions.
caused by a mutation of a gene or a different form of a gene that specifically affects the brain. They can be inherited or caused by environmental factors. Some examples are: Tay-Sachs and Wilsons Disease
Electrical signal reaches axon terminal =>
calcium ions released
"Action potential" =>
Calcium ions released =>
Neurotransmitters travel across "synaptic gap" and bind to receptors on dendrites =>
Receptors receive neurotransmitters =>
where unused transmitters are brought back into the axon terminal