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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
APUSH Unit 6 Vocab
Terms in this set (66)
South Carolina location where Confederate forces fired the first shots of the Civil War in April of 1861, after Union forces attempted to provision the fort.
Five slave states-Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware and West Virginia-that did not secede during the Civil War. To keep the states in the Union, Abraham Lincoln insisted that the war was not about abolishing slavery but rather protecting the Union.
Mountainous region that broke away from Virginia in 1861 to form its own state (admitted to the Union 1863) after Virginia seceded from the Union. Most of the residents were independent farmers and miners who did not own slaves and thus opposed the Confederate cause.
Two well-armed ironclad warships constructed for the Confederacy by a British firm. Seeking to avoid war with the United States, the British government purchased the two ships for its Royal Navy instead.
Writ of Habeus Corpus
Petition requiring law enforcement officers to present detained individuals before the court to examine the legality of the arrest. Protects individuals from arbitrary state action. Suspended by Lincoln during the Civil War.
New York Draft Riots
Uprising, mostly of working-class Irish-Americans, in protest of the draft. Rioters were particularly incensed by the ability of the rich to hire substitutes or purchase exemptions.
Morrill Tariff Act
Increased duties back up to 1846 levels to raise revenue for the Civil War.
Paper currency issued by the Union Treasury during the Civil War. Inadequately supported by gold, they fluctuated in value throughout the war, reaching a low of 39 cents on the dollar.
National Banking System
Network of member banks that could issue currency against purchased government bonds. Created during the Civil War to establish a stable national currency and stimulate the sale of war bonds.
A federal law that gave settlers 160 acres of land for about $30 if they lived on it for five years and improved it by, for instance, building a house on it. The act helped make land accessible to hundreds of thousands of westward-moving settlers, but many people also found disappointment when their land was infertile or they saw speculators grabbing up the best land.
U.S. Sanitary Commission
Founded with the help of Elizabeth Blackwell, the government agency trained nurses, collected medical supplies and equipped hospitals in an effort to help the Union Army. The commission helped professionalize nursing and gave many women the confidence and organizational skills to propel the women's movement in the postwar years.
Battle of Bull Run
First major battle of the Civil War, in which untrained Northern troops and civilian picnickers fled back to Washington. This battle helped boost Southern morale and made the North realize that this would be a long war.
A major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond by circumventing the Confederate States Army in northern Virginia. McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of General Robert E. Lee changed the character of the campaign and turned it into a humiliating Union defeat.
a former wooden warship. The Confederates plated it with iron railroad rails. They renamed it the Virginia. The Virginia easily wrecked Union Navy ships and threatened to destroy the whole Navy. The Confederates later destroy the ship to keep it from the Union. This marks the end of wooden ships.
an iron-clad vessel built by Federal forces to do battle with the Merrimack.
Second Battle of Bull Run
Aug, 1862- McClellan launched another offensive to take Richmond but was stopped again by CSA troops at the 2nd Battle of Bull Run. Lee then counterattacked and drove the Union army out of Virginia. Lee launched an invasion into Maryland which he hoped would raise anti-war sentiment in the North as well as convince England that the South could win the war.
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North succeeded in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties.
Lincoln publicly announced that he would issue this document freeing all enslaved persons in the states still in rebellion after January 1, 1863. It transformed the conflict over preserving the Union into a war of liberation.
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slave owners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Speech by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, key ideas were liberty, equality, and democratic ideas; purpose of war was to portect those ideas
Battle of Shiloh
This was battle fought by Grant in an attempt to capture the railroad of the South. The battle was fought in the west prevented the north from obtaining an easy victory. However, the Confederates strong resistance showed that they would not go quietly and the war was far from over. Named after church. April 1862. Bloodiest battle of civil war (Confederacy, Union). West Tenn loses confederacy. Troops lost, but a victory.
After the burning of Atlanta Georgia on Nov 15 1864, he marched 300 miles to Savannah and arrived there December 22nd 1864 with the 1st Alabama cavalry regiment.
A group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
The Man without a Country
Edward Everett Hale's fictional account of a treasonous soldiers journeys in exile. Book was widely read in the North, greater devotion to the union.
Also known as the "do-nothings" or "Old Gentlemen's" party; 1860 election; it was a middle of the road group that feared for the Union- consisted mostly of Whigs and Know-Nothings, met in Baltimore and nominated John Bell from Tennessee as candidate for presidency-the slogan for this candidate was "The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of the laws."
A series of brutal clashes between Ulysses S. Grant's and Robert E. Lee's armies in Virginia, leading up to Grant's capture of Richmond in April of 1865. Having lost Richmond, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse.
The Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
10 Percent Reconstruction Plan
It was a reconstruction plan that decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the union when 10 percent of voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and pledged to abide by emancipation. The next step would be erection of a state gov. and then purified regime. (Lincoln).
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs/Called carpetbaggers by white southern democrats.
Required 50 percent of the voters in a state to take a loyalty oath and permitted only non-Confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln pocket vetoed the bill.
Laws or "codes" passed in the southern states during Reconstruction that greatly limited the freedom of former slaves.
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
These acts Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
Ratified 1870. One of the "Reconstruction Amendments". Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and aggressive assault on African Americans.
Woman's Loyal League
Women's organization formed to help bring about an end to the Civil War and encourage Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to prohibiting slavery.
A pro-Union organization that that freedmen turned into a network of political clubs that educated members and campaigned for Rep. candidates. Also built black churches and schools , representing black grievances and offering protection against retaliation from whites.
This was a Democratic nickname for southern Republicans; former Whigs who were interested in economic development for their state and peace between the sections.
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states.
Ku Klux Klan
White-supremacist group formed by six former Confederate officers after the Civil War. Nathaniel Forrest; burned black-owned buildings and flogged and murdered freedmen to keep them from exercising their voting rights. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends".
These acts gave power to federal authorities to stop KKK violence and to protect civil rights of citizens in the South.
Secretary of State William Seward's negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867 for about $7 million -- about 2 cents per acre . At the time everyone thought this was a mistake to buy Alaska the "ice box" but it turned out to be the biggest bargain since the Louisiana purchase. They later realized Alaska was really useful for resources like fish, furs, and lumber.
Charles Francis Adams
American envoy whose shrewd diplomacy helped keep Britain neutral during the civil war.
Slippery french dictator who ignored the Monroe doctrine by intervening in Mexican politics.
Leader whose conflict with states' rights advocates and rigid personality harmed his ability to mobilize and direct his nation's war effort.
First woman physician, organizer of the United States Sanitary Commission.
Helped transform nursing into a respected profession during the civil war.
Established an infirmary for wounded Confederate soldiers in Richmond, Virginia. When Confederate hospitals were brought under military control, Jefferson Davis commissioned her as an officer with the rank of captain, making her the first female military officer in American history.
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
Daring southern commander killed at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
George B. McClellan
Union general who repudiated his party's Copperhead platform and polled 45% of the popular vote in 1864.
Robert E. Lee
Gentlemanly top commander of the Confederate army.
Lee had managed to retreat with the CSA army intact, and Lincoln replaced McClellan with Ambrose Burnside.
George G. Meade
May 1863- Lee defeated Hooker at Chancellorsville and the Union army was forced to retreat. Lincoln replaced Hooker with George Meade.
Southern officer whose failed charge at Gettysburg marked "the high water mark of the Confederacy".
Ulysses S. Grant
Union commander who first made his mark with victories in the West.
William Tecumseh Sherman
Ruthless Northern general who waged a march through Georgia.
Ambitious secretary of the treasury who wanted to replace Lincoln as president in 1864.
John Wilkes Booth
Fanatical actor whose act of violence actually harmed the south. He assassinated President Lincoln.
Oliver O. Howard
Pro-black general who led an agency that tried to assist the freedmen.
Southern War Democrat who ran as Lincoln's "Union party" vice-presidential candidate in 1864. Became President after Lincoln died. A "man without a home".
Leader of radical Republicans in the House of Representatives.
Black Republican senator from Mississippi during Reconstruction.
Edwin M. Stanton
As Secretary of War, he acted as a spy for the radicals in cabinet meetings. President Johnson asked him to resign in 1867. His dismissal led to the impeachment of Johnson because Johnson had broken the Tenure of Office Law.
The president pro tempore of the Senate who hoped to become president of the United States after Johnson's impeachment conviction.
Secretary of State who arranged an initially unpopular but valuable land deal in 1867.
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