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Barrier island

Extremely long offshore deposits of sand that are parallel to the coast.

Beach replenishment

Sand is added to the beach to replace lost sediment.


Hard stabilization built parallel to a shoreline.


Sediment carried out in to the ocean by rivers. They are fertile, flat, low-lying areas that are subject to periodic flooding.

Emerging shoreline

Shorelines that are rising above sea level.

Eustatic sea level change

Changes in sea level that are experienced worldwide due to changes in seawater volume or ocean basin capacity.


Built perpendicular to the coastline and are specifically designed to trap sand moving along the coast in longshore transport.


Built perpendicular to the shore and constructed of rip-rap. Made to protect harbor entrances from waves and only secondarily does it trap sand.


Large blocks of rocky material.


Built parallel to the shore along the landward side of the berm. The most destructive type of hard stabilization.

Submerging shoreline

Shorelines that sink below sea level.


A sand ridge that connects an island or sea stack to the mainland.

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