3) Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?
7) Lampreys differ from hagfishes in
E) having a notochord that is surrounded by a tube of cartilage.
9) The earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are associated with which function?
11) The lamprey species whose larvae live in freshwater streams, but whose adults live most of their lives in seawater, are similar in this respect to certain species of
13) Which of these might have been observed in the common ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans?
A) a mineralized, bony skeleton
14) To which of the following are the scales of chondrichthyans most closely related in a structural sense?
E) chondrichthyan teeth
15) Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between sharks and ray-finned fishes?
D) They have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure.
20) Arrange these taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).
D) 3, 4, 1, 5, 2
22) What should be true of fossils of the earliest tetrapods?
C) They should indicate limited adaptation to life on land.
24) Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?
B) It allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment.
26) Which of these characteristics added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments?
A) the shelled, amniotic egg
27) Which of the following is characteristic of most extant reptiles and most extant mammals?
D) keratinized skin
29) Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?
30) Examination of the fossils of Archaeopteryx reveals that, in common with extant birds, it had
31) Why is the discovery of the fossil Archaeopteryx significant? It supports the
A) phylogenetic relatedness of birds and reptiles.
32) During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures arose?
A) 2, 3, 4, 1, 5
33) Among extant vertebrates, a sheet of muscle called the diaphragm is found in
E) Three of the options listed are correct.
39) Internal fertilization, leathery amniotic egg, and skin that resists drying are characteristics of
B) nonbird reptiles.
40) Which of the following are the most abundant and diverse of the extant vertebrates?
A) ray-finned fishes
41) What is the single unique characteristic that distinguishes extant birds from other extant vertebrates?
42) Arrange the following taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).
B) 5, 4, 1, 2, 3
43) Which of these traits is most strongly associated with the adoption of bipedalism?
E) repositioning of foramen magnum
44) Which of the following statements about human evolution is correct?
E) Fossil evidence indicates that early anthropoids were arboreal and cat-sized.
46) Which of these species was the first to have been adapted for long-distance bipedalism?
C) H. ergaster
49) Which of these species is currently thought to have coexisted (at the same time and places) with H. neanderthalensis?
D) H. sapiens
52) Which of these statements about human evolution is correct?
D) Different species of the genus Homo have coexisted at various times throughout hominin evolution.
54) Which of the following statements is correct in regard to Homo erectus?
A) Their fossils are not limited to Africa.
55) Which of the following is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have foramina magna centrally positioned in the base of the cranium?
56) Which of the following is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have fully opposable thumbs?
57) Which of the following is the most specific group that includes both the Old World monkeys and the New World monkeys?
58) At least one of these has been found in all species of eumetazoan animals studied thus far.
59) Which of the following is a cluster of genes coding for transcription factors involved in the evolution of innovations in early vertebrate nervous systems and vertebrae?
94) Which feature of some carinates has the same effect on weight as the presence of air sacs?
B) absence of a urinary bladder
105) Some animals that lived 530 million years ago resembled lancelets but had a brain and a skull. These animals may represent
C) early craniates.
106) Which of the following could be considered the most recent common ancestor of living tetrapods?
A) a sturdy-finned, shallow-water lobe-fin whose appendages had skeletal supports similar to those of terrestrial vertebrates
107) Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials
B) have some embryonic development outside the uterus.