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1) Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as

B) suspension-feeding devices.

3) Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?


6) What do all craniates have that earlier chordates did not have?

D) partial or complete skull

7) Lampreys differ from hagfishes in

E) having a notochord that is surrounded by a tube of cartilage.

8) The feeding mode of the extinct conodonts was

C) predation.

9) The earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are associated with which function?


11) The lamprey species whose larvae live in freshwater streams, but whose adults live most of their lives in seawater, are similar in this respect to certain species of


12) Jaws first occurred in which extant group of fishes?


13) Which of these might have been observed in the common ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans?

A) a mineralized, bony skeleton

14) To which of the following are the scales of chondrichthyans most closely related in a structural sense?

E) chondrichthyan teeth

15) Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between sharks and ray-finned fishes?

D) They have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure.

16) Which group's members have had both lungs and gills during their adult lives?

B) lungfishes

17) There is evidence that ray-finned fishes evolved

E) the swim bladder from a lung.

18) The swim bladder of ray-finned fishes

D) provides for regulation of buoyancy.

19) Which of the following belongs to the lobe-fin clade?


20) Arrange these taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).

D) 3, 4, 1, 5, 2

21) A trend first observed in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was

C) feet with digits.

22) What should be true of fossils of the earliest tetrapods?

C) They should indicate limited adaptation to life on land.

23) Which of these are amniotes?

E) More than one of these is correct.

24) Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?

B) It allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment.

25) Which era is known as the "age of reptiles"?


26) Which of these characteristics added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments?

A) the shelled, amniotic egg

27) Which of the following is characteristic of most extant reptiles and most extant mammals?

D) keratinized skin

28) At the end of which era did most dinosaurs and pterosaurs become extinct?


29) Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?

D) birds

30) Examination of the fossils of Archaeopteryx reveals that, in common with extant birds, it had

B) feathers.

31) Why is the discovery of the fossil Archaeopteryx significant? It supports the

A) phylogenetic relatedness of birds and reptiles.

32) During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures arose?

A) 2, 3, 4, 1, 5

33) Among extant vertebrates, a sheet of muscle called the diaphragm is found in

E) Three of the options listed are correct.

37) In which vertebrates is fertilization exclusively internal?

D) reptiles and mammals

38) Their scales most closely resemble teeth in both structure and origin.

C) chondrichthyans

39) Internal fertilization, leathery amniotic egg, and skin that resists drying are characteristics of

B) nonbird reptiles.

40) Which of the following are the most abundant and diverse of the extant vertebrates?

A) ray-finned fishes

41) What is the single unique characteristic that distinguishes extant birds from other extant vertebrates?

B) feathers

42) Arrange the following taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).

B) 5, 4, 1, 2, 3

43) Which of these traits is most strongly associated with the adoption of bipedalism?

E) repositioning of foramen magnum

44) Which of the following statements about human evolution is correct?

E) Fossil evidence indicates that early anthropoids were arboreal and cat-sized.

45) Which of the following are considered apes?

D) orangutans

46) Which of these species was the first to have been adapted for long-distance bipedalism?

C) H. ergaster

47) Which of these species was apparently the first to craft stone tools?

A) Australopithecus garhi

48) Which of these species was the first to have some members migrate out of Africa?

B) H. erectus

49) Which of these species is currently thought to have coexisted (at the same time and places) with H. neanderthalensis?

D) H. sapiens

50) Which of these species had members who moved out of Africa?

E) both H. sapiens and H. erectus

52) Which of these statements about human evolution is correct?

D) Different species of the genus Homo have coexisted at various times throughout hominin evolution.

53) The oldest fossil remains of Homo sapiens found so far date from about

C) 195,000 years ago.

54) Which of the following statements is correct in regard to Homo erectus?

A) Their fossils are not limited to Africa.

55) Which of the following is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have foramina magna centrally positioned in the base of the cranium?

D) hominins

56) Which of the following is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have fully opposable thumbs?

C) anthropoids

57) Which of the following is the most specific group that includes both the Old World monkeys and the New World monkeys?

D) hominins

58) At least one of these has been found in all species of eumetazoan animals studied thus far.

A) Hox

59) Which of the following is a cluster of genes coding for transcription factors involved in the evolution of innovations in early vertebrate nervous systems and vertebrae?


94) Which feature of some carinates has the same effect on weight as the presence of air sacs?

B) absence of a urinary bladder

104) Vertebrates and tunicates share

E) a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nerve cord.

105) Some animals that lived 530 million years ago resembled lancelets but had a brain and a skull. These animals may represent

C) early craniates.

106) Which of the following could be considered the most recent common ancestor of living tetrapods?

A) a sturdy-finned, shallow-water lobe-fin whose appendages had skeletal supports similar to those of terrestrial vertebrates

107) Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials

B) have some embryonic development outside the uterus.

108) Which clade does not include humans?


109) As hominins diverged from other primates, which of the following appeared first?

C) bipedal locomotion

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