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All of the following are examples of risk factors that increase the tendency to become delinquent except:

single parenting.

In psychological research, children who adapt and show no ill effects after exposure to many risk factors are said to be:


Life experiences, abilities and events that help a child resist engaging in chronic, serious antisocial behavior are called:

protective factors.

The scientific study of the conditions and variables that influence the neurological, biological, mental, emotional and social development of children is referred to as:

The developmental perspective.

Which status offense has substantially increased in recent years?

underage drinking.

Which of the following is an example of a conduct disorder?

All of the above: animal cruelty, firesetting, stealing.

One of the critical findings in the Rochester Youth Development Study was that:

Children more attached to and involved with parents were less involved in delinquency.

The onset of violent aggression is usually:

Late adolescence.

The most common violent crime committed by females is:

aggravated assault.

Available data suggests that two-thirds of juveniles who carry weapons state they do so:

for protection.

An example of a crime that a juvenile can be arrested for that an adult cannot be arrested for is:

all the above: truancy, incorrigibility, curfew violations and runaway behavior.

Meda Chesney-Lind contends the juvenile justice system discriminates against girls, because society believes it must protect adolescent girls from the consequences of:


Which of the following best describes the operating philosophy of the juvenile court under parens patriae?

best interest of the child.

Which of the following statements best describes the child savers?

They lobbied for a separate legal status for children.

Juvenile court records as an example of:

official statistics.

Over the past ten years, the number of child delinquents has:

increased 33%.

According to the most recent data, the vast majority of residents in juvenile facilities were there:

for offenses that would be considered criminal for adults.

Which term refers to the amount of crime that never comes to police attention?

dark figure.

Which of the following is one of the major criticisms of official crime data?

It is biased by police behavior and arrest practices.

Which of the following is a good example of a longitudinal method of research study?

cohort group.

Which model of delinquency can examine several influences at once and integrate these into a sequential chain to suggest how antisocial behavior is shaped and sustained?


An individual who kicks preschool classmates at age 4, shoplifts at age 11, and commits rape at age 20 is considered to be:

life course persistent offender.

A primary feature distinguishing two alternative pathways in Moffitt's theory is:

age of onset.

Research concerning gender differences seems to show that:

all of the above: girls are more vulnerable to early onset than previously thought, fewer girls engage in antisocial behavior than boys and girls displayed early onset antisocial behavior similar to boys.

_____ theory views crime as a "normal" function of the routine activities of modern living.

routine activities.

The volume and distribution of predatory crimes in a particular area and at a particular time is influenced by the interaction of three variables. Which of the following is NOT one of these variables?

The absence of law enforcement.

The concept of social disorganization was first recognized by sociologists:

Clifford Shaw & Henry McKay.

Which of the following best describes social disorganization theory principles?

Communities no longer have the capability of regulating the conduct of residents.

Residents of cohesive communities develop a sense of ____; people know one another, develop interpersonal ties, mutual trust and a willingness to intervene in the supervision of children and help maintain public order.

collective efficacy.

According to Elijah Anderson, there are two cultural forces running through poor neighborhoods that shape their reactions. These are street values and:

decent values.

What term did Robert K. Merton use to describe a lack of social integration?


_____ proposes that delinquency results from the frustration individuals feel when they are unable to achieve the goals they desire.

strain theory.

Social Learning theory suggests that delinquent behavior can be acquired through:

imitation and modeling.

What does containment theory suggest is a precondition of law-abiding behavior?

good self concept.

What term did Hirschi use to describe respect for the law and social norms?


The theorists that is most closely identified with social control theory is____?

Travis Hirschi.

Marxists contend poverty and demoralization caused by a capitalist system cause ___crime.


Hagan suggested that a relationship between power and control would explain why ____.

girls commit less delinquency than boys.

General Strain Theory was developed by:


What is the primary similarity between General Strain Theory and previous strain theories?

They all maintain that stress is a major source of criminal motivation.

A 1994 report by the NCAA revealed that children harmed by maltreatment mostly were victims of what type of abuse?


According to Straus's study on corporal punishment, who hits children the most?


Studies on sexually abused victims suggest prostitution is a way for victims to ________.

Take control of others by making them pay.

Low parental monitoring is associated with:

Earlier initiation of substance abuse.

Which parental psychopathology or behavior is most closely linked to child abuse?

domestic violence.

_______ refers to deprivations children suffer at the hands of their parents, such as lack of food, shelter, and adequate health care.

physical neglect.

Widom's study on child abuse and neglect revealed that being abused or neglected increased the likelihood of ________________.

Juvenile arrest and violent crime.

Which of the following groups has the highest rate of maltreatment of children?

African American.

Meda Chesney-Lind claims the study of delinquency is _____.

gender biased.

According to Messerschmitt, the key to explaining criminality is:


Studies in peer-group influence suggest that females are more likely to commit delinquent acts when in the company of ______________.

mixed-sex groups.

What does the liberal feminism contend would eliminate discriminatory practices?

public awareness.

Belknap and Holsinger (2006) used a feminist pathways approach to study incarcerated girls in order to better understand the risk associated with and improve the responses to girls' and boys' delinquency. They argue there are four implications for their abuse victimization findings. Which of the following is NOT one of those implications?

It does not matter the quality of the abuse treatment programs or the availability in both boys' and girls' facilities.

According to the 2002 National drug survey, ______________________ is the most abused illicit drug for 12 to 18 years old.


According to Bartollas, who controls drug trafficking in urban areas?


How many drugs abusing youth continue to use drugs after reaching adulthood?

about 2/3.

Which explanation is the strongest predictor if an individual's involvement in drug use?

drug use by peers.

The few studies that have focused on gender differences in drug use suggest that:

males and females experience different consequences of substance abuse.

Which drug is called the date rape drug?


______ is a short lived alliance created to commit a particular crime.

Group delinquency.

Which of the following best describes the most common reason for gang member migrate in the United States?

Social, the gang member's family moves.

What do parker, Luther and Murphy (2007) recommend as a policy to address gang problems?

Limit alcohol availability.

The gang Mara Salvatrucha is from:

El Salvador.

According to the Maxson-Klein typology, a gang that is often very territorial and has been in existence less than 10 years is the:

Neotraditional gang.

The most common type of gang in the united states is the:


What is different in police programs in schools today, compared to traditional types of programming, such as Drug Abuse and Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.)?

Programs are structured for students control and crime prevention.

According to the profile developed by the U.S. Secret Service, school shootings:

Involved shooters with a history of being bullied.

A______ policy mandates specific consequences or punishments for delinquent acts and not allowing anyone to avoid these consequences.


The public health and the ecological life course developmental approaches to violence prevention are similar in all of the following ways except:

The public health approach is based on the stages for human development.

Which of the following terms refers to prevention methods aimed at recidivism?

Tertiary prevention.

Effective programs to prevent delinquency among chronic offenders must be ______.


Which diversion form utilizes restorative justice conferences involving offenders, victims, their families and other member of the community?

Alternative dispute resolution.

Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics of the public health approach?

Use of forensic interview data.

Building core competencies is central to what perspective on violence prevention:

Ecological life course developmental approach.

All of the following are true of the asset building approach to preventing violence except:

Referred to as the 'public health' approach.

Nested ecological contexts refer to:

Individuals situated in immediate social setting that are situated in increasingly larger, mor macro social settings.

Which is NOT a problem associated with the public health approach?

It leads to programs implementation, evaluation, and dissemination.

Diversion program typically do not operate under which of the following auspices?

Healthcare facility.

Teen courts:

May promote resilience.

Resilient individuals demonstrate significant amounts of:

Intrinsic motivation.

In the film "Worlds Most Dangerous Gang"' what did federal authorities do that back fired?

They deported illegal gang members back to their home countries.

In the film "Girl Trouble", what can be theorized about these girl's lives?

- They all have some form of abuse in their background.
- They all dealt with drug use in some way.

What does the parens patriae philosophy charge the juvenile court must do in regard to juvenile offenders?

Provide Treatment.

Which of the following persons is most likely to make the decision if a juvenile should remain in the community or be placed in a secure treatment facility?

Probation Officer.

Which of the following juvenile court terms is equal to the adult sentencing phase of a trial?

Disposition hearing.

Which model of the juvenile justice system seeks to change an offender's character, attitude, or behavior to diminish his or her propensities for youth crime through medical or adjustment treatment?

Rehabilitative model.

Which model assumes that delinquency problems must be solved in the community where they started?

Reintegration model.

An integrated model that seeks to reconcile the interests of victims, offenders, and the community through programs and supervision practices is called the _____. This model seeks to insure accountability to crime victims and enhance community safety.

Balance or restorative model.

An indictment in juvenile language is called______.

A petition.

Where was the first juvenile court founded in 1899?


What concern did the Kent v. United States (1966) case resolve in juvenile justice?


Which right was affirmed for juveniles in the In Re Gault case (1967)?

Due process.

Which juvenile justice evidentiary standard was changed due to the Winship case (1970)?

Preponderance of the evidence.

Which right was denied to juveniles as indicted in the McKeiver v. Pennsylvania (1971) case?

Jury trials.

Which case held preventative detention for juveniles was constitutional?

Schall v. Martin.

Approximately how many juveniles has the United States put to death since the seventeenth century?


Which state has executed the most juveniles in the United States?


Which of the following is not one of the duties of the juvenile court judge?

Representing the interests of the state and bringing the case against the accused juvenile.

Jurisdictions who violate federal guidelines for housing juveniles in jails with adult offenders face:

Loss of eligibility for federal juvenile justice funds.

In 1989, the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 was amended to prohibit:

The placement of status offenders in secure detention facilities.

In a ____, a hearing is held before a juvenile court judge who then decides whether jurisdiction should be waived and the case transferred to the adult court.

Judicial waiver.

Which of the following is generally used in conjunction with house arrest?

Electronic monitoring.

What did a 14 year old girl die from while being confined to a South Dakota boot camp?


____ is the primary form of correctional treatment used by the juvenile justice system.


____ is a contract between the court and the juvenile.


Which of the following juveniles is the most likely client of Juvenile Intensive Probation Supervision?

Juveniles who would normally be sent to secure facilities.

In _____, the offender is required to stay home during specific periods of time; monitoring is done by random phone calls and visits or by electronic devices.

House arrest.

Approximately ___ of adjudicated delinquency cases result in a disposition of out of home placement.


Treatment programs that have been shown to be most effective:

Target multiple systems at various levels.

The aspect of the JJDPA that stated status offenses should not be considered "delinquency" is called:


Which type of program setting is most effective at reducing recidivism?

Community-based setting.

In their study examining long term effects of MST, Shaeffer and Borduin (2005) found that:

MST participants had significantly lower recidivism rates than those who received individual therapy.

Which approach to adolescent drug abuse prevention targets school, peer and community in addition to the family?

Ecological family-based therapy.

Boot camps:

All of the above: are another term for shock incarceration, is based on the military model, were initially developed for adult offenders.

Why is the military style of boot-camps so popular?

It projects the image of getting tough with crime.

Which statement most accurately describes female juvenile sex offenders, according to Bumby and Bumby (1997)?

They tend to have been victims of sexual abuse.

Why are JSO programs designed differently than those that target adult sexual offenders?

JSOs are more changeable than adults.

Which was not an intention of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act?

Deinstitutionalize youthful offenders, regardless of offense.

Where do most people get their information to form their opinions on juvenile crime?


What percent of gang bangers are hard core?


According to the film Juvies, what is the recidivism rate for kids sent to adult prison?


The Child Savers devoted significant attention and resources to insuring the protection of the rights of juveniles.


What was the recommendation of federal investigators to the Arizona facility?

Lock them up and throw away the key.

In the Arizona facility, how do most releases come?

Aging out.

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