In literature, the perspective from which a story is told. There are two general divisions of point of
view and many subdivisions within those.
a. Narrator is the character or voice that relates the story / poem to the reader.
b. Unreliable Narrator is the character or voice that relates the story / poem to the reader, but is
not an objective source. Nick Carroway in The Great Gatsby is the unreliable narrator.
c. First person narrator tells the story with the first person-pronoun, "I," and is a character in the
story. This narrator can be the protagonist (the hero or heroine), a participant (a character in
a secondary role), or an observer (a character who merely watches the action).
d. Second Person narrator relates the events of the text utilizing "your" perspective. "you"
become the voice. This technique is uncommon.
e. Third person narrator relates the events with the third person pronouns, "he," "she," and "it."
There are two main subdivisions to be aware of: omniscient and limited omniscient. In the
"third person omniscient" point of view, the narrator, with godlike knowledge, presents the
thoughts and actions of any or all characters. This all-knowing narrator can reveal what each
character feels and thinks at any given moment. The "third person limited omniscient" point
of view, as its name implies, presents the feelings and thoughts of only one character,
presenting only the actions of all remaining characters.
f. First or Third Person Retrospect is a story written with the element of hindsight, as if the
narrator has wisdom about the subject that only comes with maturity, even though the
narrator is experiencing the lessons as the plot progresses. I Know Why the Caged Bird
Sings, by Maya Angelou, is written in first person retrospect.
this flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of
writing. The four most common rhetorical modes and their purposes are as follows:
a. The purpose of exposition (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze information by
presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion.
b. The purpose of argumentation is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by
presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convinces the reader.
Persuasive writing is a type of argumentation having the additional aim of urging some form
c. The purpose of description is to re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event,
or action so that the reader can picture that being described. Sometimes an author engages
all five senses in description; good descriptive writing can be sensuous and picturesque.
Descriptive may be straightforward and objective or highly emotional and subjective.
d. The purpose of narration is to tell a story or narrate and event or series of events. This
writing mode frequently uses the tools of descriptive writing.
These four writing modes are sometimes referred to as modes of discourse.