67 terms

IB English

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Ad Hominem Arguement
An arguement attacking an individual's character rather than his or her position on an issue
Aesthetic Distance
standing apart from a work of art as a reader or viewer; recognizing that it is art and not real life
Allegory
an expressive style that uses fictional characters and events to describe some subject by suggestive resemblances
Alliteration
repetition of initial identical consonant sounds, usually at the beginning of a word or stressed
syllable. Sibilance is alliteration using an "s."
Allusion
a figure of speech that makes a brief reference to a historical or literary figure, event, or object.
Ambiguty
a literary tool used to suggest various ranges of meanings, each of which makes sense, therefore
adding depth to a work or passage.
Antagonist
the character in opposition to the protagonist. A rival of the protagonist.
Archetype
A detail, image, or character type that occurs frequently in literature and myth and is thought to appeal in a universal way to the unconscious and to evoke a response
Assonance
similar vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonants.
Atmosphere
the prevailing tone or mood of a work, generally established by setting; i.e. "Something rotten in
the state of Denmark"; "Once upon a midnight dreary..."
Bildungsroman (coming of age)
(kunstlerroman) a novel that deals with the development of a young person, generally from
adolescence to maturity.
Cacophony
the subjective impression of unpleasantness of sound.
Characterization
This is achieved through description, thoughts, words, actions, and reactions of characters
Cliche
a word or phrase that has lost its original effectiveness or power because of overuse.
Colloquilism
Informal words or expressions not usually acceptable in formal writing
Conceit
an ingenious conception/notion expressed through elaborate analogy/metaphor pointing to a
parallel between dissimilar things.
Connotation
emotional/personal implications words may carry.
Consonance
repetition of internal consonant sounds, but vowels preceding them differ.
Counterplot
a secondary plot that contrasts with the principal plot of work.
Denotation
literal "dictionary" meaning of a word.
Diction
the use of words, speaking primarily of vocabulary and syntax: formal, informal, colloquial, slang.
Double Entendre
word with two meanings; sexual innuendo is often involved.
Epiphany
revelation; sudden insight.
Euphony
a quality of style marked by pleasing combinations of sounds (subjective).
Foil
a person or an object that through strong contrast underscores or enhances the distinctive
characteristics of another.
Foreshadowing
the introduction early in a story of verbal and dramatic hints that suggest what is to come later.
Hyperbole
conscious exaggeration used without the intent of literal persuasion.
Imagery
The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent
abstractions. On a physical level, imagery uses terms related to the five senses:
a. gustatory image - image that involves taste
b. tactile image - image that involves touch
c. visual image - image that involves sight
d. olfactory image - image that involves smell
e. auditory image - image that involves sound
f. kinesthetic image - image that involves motion
g. organic image - image that involves a natural and internal response
Internal Monologue
thinking inside one's head; records the internal, experience of the character.
Irony
the contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant; the difference between
what appears to be and what actually is true. In general, there are three major types of irony used
in language:
a. In verbal irony, the words literally state the opposite of the writer's (or speaker's) true
meaning.
b. In situational irony, events turn out the opposite of what was expected. What the characters
and readers think ought to happen is not what does happen.
c. In dramatic irony, facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but
known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work. Irony is used for many
reasons, but frequently, it's used to create poignancy or humor.
Juxtaposition
two opposing images appearing side-by-side, creating, through a sense of friction, attention to
both.
Leitmotif
repeated words, ideas, or objects in a work that substantiate a motif.
Metaphor
implied analogy/comparison identifying one object with another (not using like or as). An
extended metaphor continues the comparison throughout the text.
Mood
the feeling that the writer evokes in the reader through carefully selected details and words.
Motif
A recurring abstract concept in literature.
Onomatopoeia
the use of words that by their sound suggest their meaning (buzz, single, sizzle).
Oxymoron
a self-contradictory combination of words (hurry slowly, bittersweet).
Paradox
a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.
Parallelism
phrases or sentences of a similar construction/meaning placed side by side, balancing each other
Parody
a work imitating another, usually serious, piece of work; makes fun of some familiar style.
Personification
giving animals or inanimate objects human characteristics.
Point of view
In literature, the perspective from which a story is told. There are two general divisions of point of
view and many subdivisions within those.
a. Narrator is the character or voice that relates the story / poem to the reader.
b. Unreliable Narrator is the character or voice that relates the story / poem to the reader, but is
not an objective source. Nick Carroway in The Great Gatsby is the unreliable narrator.
c. First person narrator tells the story with the first person-pronoun, "I," and is a character in the
story. This narrator can be the protagonist (the hero or heroine), a participant (a character in
a secondary role), or an observer (a character who merely watches the action).
d. Second Person narrator relates the events of the text utilizing "your" perspective. "you"
become the voice. This technique is uncommon.
e. Third person narrator relates the events with the third person pronouns, "he," "she," and "it."
There are two main subdivisions to be aware of: omniscient and limited omniscient. In the
"third person omniscient" point of view, the narrator, with godlike knowledge, presents the
thoughts and actions of any or all characters. This all-knowing narrator can reveal what each
character feels and thinks at any given moment. The "third person limited omniscient" point
of view, as its name implies, presents the feelings and thoughts of only one character,
presenting only the actions of all remaining characters.
f. First or Third Person Retrospect is a story written with the element of hindsight, as if the
narrator has wisdom about the subject that only comes with maturity, even though the
narrator is experiencing the lessons as the plot progresses. I Know Why the Caged Bird
Sings, by Maya Angelou, is written in first person retrospect.
Prose
lines of writing that conform to the margins of the page.
Protagonist
main character in a drama or novel; usually a good guy.
Pun
a play on words based on similarity of sounds between two words with different meanings.
Rhetorical Modes
this flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of
writing. The four most common rhetorical modes and their purposes are as follows:
a. The purpose of exposition (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze information by
presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion.
b. The purpose of argumentation is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by
presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convinces the reader.
Persuasive writing is a type of argumentation having the additional aim of urging some form
of action.
c. The purpose of description is to re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event,
or action so that the reader can picture that being described. Sometimes an author engages
all five senses in description; good descriptive writing can be sensuous and picturesque.
Descriptive may be straightforward and objective or highly emotional and subjective.
d. The purpose of narration is to tell a story or narrate and event or series of events. This
writing mode frequently uses the tools of descriptive writing.
These four writing modes are sometimes referred to as modes of discourse.
Rhythm
regularity or reoccurrences of specific sounds or kinds of sounds or of stressed and unstressed
syllables.
Satire
writing that blends criticism with humor and wit to improve humanity.
Simile
direct comparison between two unlike things using like, as, similar to, etc.
Stream of Consciousness
a literary genre that reveals a character's thoughts and feeling as they develop by means of a long soliloquy
Style
manner of expression in writing - arrangement of words that best expresses the individuality of the
author and the intention of the author's mind.
Subplot
a plot which is subordinate to the main plot of the story, often meant to be compared and/or
contrasted to the main plot.
Symbol/Symbolism
a concrete or real object used to represent an idea; something that is itself and yet stands for or
suggests or means something else. One system classifies in three categories:
a. Natural symbols use objects and occurrences from nature to represent ideas commonly
associated with them (dawn symbolizing hope or a new beginning, a rose symbolizing love, a
tree symbolizing knowledge).
b. Conventional symbols are those that have been invested with meaning by a group (religious
symbols, such as a cross or Star of David; national symbols, such as skull and crossbones
for pirates or the scales of justice for lawyers).
c. Literary symbols are sometimes also conventional in the sense that they are found in a
variety of works and are generally recognized. One must determine what abstraction an
object is a symbol for and to what extent it is successful in representing that abstraction.
Syntax
the order in which words are put together to form phrases and sentences.
Theme
the author's comment about the aspect. It implies the use of a subject and a predicate in making a
thematic statement.
Tone
author's attitude or feeling towards the subject and/or toward the audience in a literary work.
Anastrophe
Inversion of the natural or usual word order
Apostrophe
address to an absent or imaginary person
Litotes
understatement
Metonymy
A figure of speech in which something is referred to by using the name of something that is associated with it
Montage
Collection of images/pieces
Persona/Voice/Speaker
The second self; the speaker or mask created by the author, and through who the narrative is told.
Soliloquy
a (usually long) dramatic speech intended to give the illusion of unspoken reflections
Structure
Planned framework of a piece of literature.
Surrealism
An artistic movement that displayed vivid dream worlds and fantastic unreal images
Understatement
a statement that is restrained in ironic contrast to what might have been said
Vernacular
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)