AQA GCSE Geography - Coasts (Case Studies)
Terms in this set (12)
The coast: A multi-use area
Economic (ExxonMobil Oil Refinery (largest in UK), Fawley Chemical plant (One of largest in Europe), The Port of Southampton (Largest container facility in the UK))
Environmental (Keyhaven Nature Reserve (800 hectares of mudflats), River Hamble (Conservation area), Lepe County Park (range of activities))
Recreational (Calshot Activity Centre (On of the largest outdoor activity centres in UK), Lymington and Cowes (Sailing Resort))
Coastal Areas and Economic Development
Dubai - Largest and most expensive coastal development project in the world is taking place (construction of 3 palm shaped islands + 300 other islands). Lots of tourist buildings (Hotels, shopping centre with 200 shops). Also built a port for cruise ships to dock. Producing high-tech products for export on industrial estate. Also built international airport.
Landforms created by Coastal Erosion
Scarborough - Landslides happened in 1993. Hotel fell into the sea. Occurred because of months of heavy rainfall. Caused the cliff to collapse. Being destroyed at a rate of 10 metres per year.
Landforms created by costal deposition
Hampshire, Hurst Castle Spit - Shingle spit that developed because of long shore drift. The spit protects the area behind and has formed a salt marsh which is now a nature reserve.
Protecting coastal areas from Natural Processes
UK, Shoreline Management Plan - Splits UK coastline into cells (England and Wales have been split up into 11 cells, which are then split up further into sub cells) and decided which parts should be protected and what methods should be used. There are 4 methods in a shoreline management plan:
Hold the line - Maintain existing defences.
Advance the line - Build new defences seaward.
Managed Retreat - Allow the land to flood and construct a new line of defence further inland.
No intervention - let natural processes shape the land.
Conflict between costal management
Sea Palling, Happisburgh - Sea Palling is being protected which boulders and beach replenishment, also built 4 offshore reefs to break waves. Happisburgh is being left to the sea as the government decided not to intervene with the natural processes attacking the clay cliffs.
Using Hard engineering to protect the coast
Ventnor, Isle of White - Vulnerable to wave attack due to narrow beach, powerful storm waves in winter which can be up to 1m high, and very prone to abrasion. Sea wall used to protect the coast from the waves.
Using soft engineering to protect the coast
Pevensey Bay, UK - The sensitive area is being protected by using soft engineering: Beach replenishment (Sand from sea bed and other areas pumped onto beach) Beach Recycling (Material is unevenly spread over the beach, the sand is moved back into place) Beach reprofilling (Bulldozers push material back up the beach).
Managing fragile coastal areas
St Lucia - The Soufriere Management Area (SMMA) splits the coastal area into 5 zones which only specific activities can happen for each zone. Regulations strictly enforced. It is there to protect the fragile coastal zone while catering the needs of the local economy.
Using the natural Environment to reduce the risk of flooding (Managed Retreat)
Wallasea Wetlands, Essex - Managed Retreat was implemented in the area, defences including a new sea wall and artificial reefs, as well as an earth bund. 700000 tones of mud pumped onto area which created 115 hectares of mudflats and salt marshes, which provide a natural defence against flooding.
Managing the coastal zone
The Mediterranean - Lots of pressures on the coastal zone: More sea pollution, increased urbanization of area, damage to the environment from buildings, growing threat of desertification, increase in air pollution, increased risk of sea accidents, water shortages. It is being managed by: turn some of the area into nature reserves, reduce building development, inland tourism to relieve pressure on coast, guidelines, treat waste water, encourage water conservation, encourage energy saving methods, reduce pollution.
Planning for rising sea levels
Italy - Response project, has 3 stages:
Collect background information on:
- The coastal processes and hazards
- The existing coastal defenses
- economic and environmental value
Assess the risks:
- Identify soft and hard coastline
- How rate of erosion could increase
- Assessing if risks of flooding and landslides will increase.
- Suggest the impact of rising sea levels
- recommend methods of protection
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