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Physics Chapter 4
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Gravity
Terms in this set (57)
Force
A push or a pull
Contact force
External world touches a system, exerting force on it
Measurement
comparison between an unknown quantity
Precision
the degree of exactness of a measurement
Accuracy
describes how well the results of a measurement agree with the "real" value
Independent variable
factor manipulated
Dependent variable
factor that depends on the independent variable
Line of best fit
a line drawn as close to all the data points as possible
Linear relationship
dependent variable varies linearly with the independent variable, written as y=mx+b
Quadratic relationship
when one variable depends on the square of another y=ax2+bx+c
Inverse relationship
hyperbolic relationship in which one variable depends on the inverse of the other variable y=a/x
Motion diagram
series of moving images showing the positions of a moving object at equal time intervals
Particle model
replace picture with single points
Coordinate system
gives the location of a zero point of the variable you are studying and the direction in which the values of the variable increase
Origin
point at which all variables in a coordinate system have the value 0
Position
the distance and direction from the origin to the object
Distance
entire length of an object's path
Magnitude
size
Vector
quantity that has both magnitude and direction
Scalar
quantity that is just a number without direction
Time interval
difference between two times
Displacement
change in position
Resultant
vector that represents the sum of two other vectors is called a resultant
Position time graph
...
Intersection
a point where lines meet and cross
Instantaneous position
position at a particular instant
Average velocity
ratio of an objects change in position to the time interval during which the change occurred
Average speed
slope's absolute value, distance traveled divided by the time taken to travel that distance
Instantaneous velocity
the speed and the direction of an object in a particular instant
Acceleration
rate at which an object's velocity changes
Velocity time graph
shows acceleration
Average acceleration
change in velocity during some measurable time interval divided by that time interval
Instantaneous acceleration
change in an object's velocity t an instant of time
Free fall
motion of an object when gravity is the only significant force acting on it
Free fall acceleration
acceleration of an object due only to the effect of gravity
Force
a push or a pull
System
object(s) of interest
Free
body diagram- physical representation that shows the forces acting on a system
Net force
vector sum of all the forces on an object
Newton's second law
acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the ass of the object being accelerated (a=fnet/m)
Newton's first law
an object that is at rest will remain at rest and an object that is moving will continue to move in a straight line with constant speed if and only if the net force acting on that object is 0
Inertia
tendency of matter to resist change
Equilibrium
when the net force on an object is 0
Weight
gravitational force experienced by an object
Gravitational field
vector quantity that relates the mass of an object to the gravitational force it experiences at a given location
Apparent weight
support force exerted on an object
Weightlessness
no contact forces acting to support the object and apparent weight is 0
Drag force
the force exerted by a fluid on an object in the direction opposite to the object's motion
Terminal velocity
constant velocity that is reached when the drag force equals the force of gravity
Interaction pair
set of two forces that are in opposite directions, have equal magnitudes, and act in different objects
Newtons third law
all forces come in pairs, equal in strength and opposite in direction
Tension
force that a string or a rope exerts
Normal force
perpendicular contact force that a surface exerts on another surface
Components
parts of a vector
Vector resolution
process of breaking a vector into its components
Equilibrant
has the same amount as the resultant force but is in the opposite direction, puts it into equilibrium
Vector sum
adding all vectors together
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