High School Chemistry Terms

PSU Chem 111 2015-2016

Terms in this set (...)

the closeness of a measurement to the true value of the measured quantity
actual yield
the amount of product actually obtained in a reaction
an ion with a negative net charge
smallest piece of an element that can enter into chemical combinations
Avogadro's number
6.02 x 10^23; the number of 12C atoms in 12 g of 12C
Brønsted acid
substance capable of donating a proton (H+)
Brønsted base
substance capable of accepting a proton (H+)
buffer solution
solution that has the ability to resist small changes in pH upon the addition of small amounts of either acid or base
substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed itself
an ion with a net positive charge
chemical kinetics
area of chemistry concerning speeds and rates at which chemical reactions occur
chemical reaction
process in which one or more substances are converted into other substances
substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions
covalent bond
bond in which two electrons are shared by two atoms
mass of a substance divided by its volume
the gradual mixing of one substance with another due to random molecular motion
procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated solution
substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water
ability of an atom to attract electrons towards itself in a chemical bond
substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means
endothermic process
process that absorbs heat from surroundings
the capacity to do work or to produce change
a biological catalyst
a state in which there are no observable changes as time goes by
excess reagents
one or more reactants present in quantities greater than those needed to react with the quantity of the limiting reagent
exothermic process
process that gives off heat during a reaction
first law of thermodynamics
energy can be converted from one form to another but cannot be created nor destroyed
full ionic equation
a reaction equation showing all soluble compounds in their ionic forms
transfer of thermal energy between two bodies that are at different temperatures
thermal energy
energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules
Hess's Law
when reactants are converted to products, the change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or in a series of steps
hydrogen bond
dipole-dipole interaction between molecules containing hydrogen bonded to an electronegative element {FON}; the electronegative element must be bonded to an H and another element as well
ionic bond
electrostatic force holding an ion together in an ionic compound
ionic compound
compound composed of cations and anions combined so that the charges balance out; charge is neutral
ionization energy
minimum energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom or ion in its ground state
atoms having the same number of protons but different number of neutrons, affecting its atomic mass
unit of energy given by newton meters
kinetic energy
energy available due to motion of an object
limiting reagent
reactant used up first in a reaction
macroscopic properties
properties that can be measured directly
elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity; have the tendency to form positive ions in ionic compounds
combination of two ore more substances in which both retain their identity
molar mass
mass (in g or kg) of 1 mole of atoms, molecules, or other particles
Molarity (M)
number of moles of solute in 1 L of solution
Avogadro's number
molecular compound
compound consisting of covalently bonded atoms
molecular equation
reaction equation showing complete chemical formulas of all reactants and products
neutral aggregate of two ore more atoms held together by covalent bonds
net ionic equation
reaction equation in which all spectator ions are removed, leaving only the ions and molecules directly involved in the reaction
elements that are usually poor conductors of heat and electricity; have tendency to gain electrons and form negative ions
nonpolar bond
covalent bond in which the electrons are equally shared by two atoms, so there are no + or - ends
nonpolar molecule
molecule that does not have a dipole moment
octet rule
atoms (other than H) tend to form bonds until they are surrounded by 8 valence electrons
organic chemistry
branch of chemistry dealing with carbon compounds
oxidation number
number of charges an atom would have in a molecule in electrons were transferred completely in the direction of the atoms with the higher EN
oxidation reaction
half-reaction involving the loss of electrons
oxidizing agent
substance that can accept electrons from another substance or increase oxidation number in another substance
% yield
ratio of actual yield to theoretical yield, x 100%
the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
particle of light
physical property
characteristic that can be observed without transforming the substance into another substance
polar bond
covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are more strongly attracted to the bonding atoms creating partial + and partial - ends; some degree of ionic character in this bond
polar molecule
molecule that possesses a dipole moment
potential energy
energy available due to object's position
insoluble solid that separates from the solution