Terms in this set (30)
-is the use of commercial marketing techniques to help in acquisition of a behavior that is beneficial for the health of a target population.
-__________ is becoming popular in the governmental sector as well as the not-for-profit sector in the United States and many other countries around the world in influencing behaviors.
social marketing (applications in health field)
-recruiting blood donors
-infant mortality reduction by oral re-hydration
-smoking prevention in adolescents
-has been rapidly changing over the past two decades.
-from one-dimensional (PSAs only) to a multifaceted approach drawing from commercial marketers,
(termed "social marketing")
focus on "consumer"
-no more hierarchal information channels
-public health professionals are learning to listen to the needs and desires of the target audience themselves, and building the program from there.
-involves in-depth research and constant re-evaluation of every aspect of the program.
-research and evaluation together form the very cornerstone of the social marketing process.
commercial vs social marketing
social marketing is a more complex concept, and sometimes less effective than commercial
-aims to influence and benefit target audience's ideas and behavior (ex. use condoms)
commercial marketing (difference between CM & SM)
-purpose: making profits
-scrutiny: usually done in private sector
-novelty: usually selling a known product
-educational level of audiences: variable and includes different sections
-distasteful behaviors: usually caters to what public likes
-involvement between marketer and public: less
-benefits: clear in profits
-third parties: direct benefits to people using the product
-self rewards: usually the rewards are external (ex. discount, better product, etc...)
-funding: usually private
choices of products: numerous
social marketing (difference between CM & SM)
-purpose: making behavior change for social causes
-scrutiny: done from a variety of sources
-novelty: sometimes selling an idea that is totally knew
-educational level of audiences: usually vulnerable sections with low literacy
-distasteful behaviors: often has to cater what people don't want to change (ex. wearing a seat belt)
-involvement between marketer and public: often very high
-benefits: often invisible
-third parties:often the benefits are to third parties such as poor people, etc.
self rewards: usually the rewards offered are internal or self rewards, e.g., weight loss
-funding: usually government or not-for-profit foundations
-choices of products: limited
-programs more effective if they are based on an understanding of the target audience's own perceptions of the proposed exchange.
-target audiences are seldom uniform in their perceptions and/or likely responses to marketing efforts.
-should be partitioned into segments
social marketing concept
concentrates on tailoring programs to serve a defined target group. That group can be health professionals, community leaders, legislators, corporate executives, retail store managers, media decision makers, public health officials, and various public audiences. It is not just "the individual." A tight, continuous focus on the particular consumers one is trying to affect (the "target") will assure the planner's ability to identify and meet consumer needs.
-distinct groups of people who are similar to each other in different characteristics and thus likely to respond to messages in a similar way are identified
-segments may be based on geographic factors, demographic factors, medical history factors, personality characteristics, attitudinal factors, behavioral factors, and so on
-determines: perception, needs, wants of target markets
-satisfies through: design, communication, pricing, delivery of appropriate, competitive, and visible offerings
-the process is consumer-driven, not expert-driven
-use research methods to understand consumer reality; pretest materials w/members of target groups; use citizen advisory panels.
-theory implies the transfer or transaction of something valuable between two individuals or groups.
-occurs between a marketing organization & members of target audience
-individuals, groups, and organizations have resources
Money, effort, or time
-willing to exchange for perceived benefits
(mutual fulfillment of self-interest; looking and feeling better, social prestige, and being independent)
-SM facilitates the exchange by providing audience with benefits they value as being worth the cost.
-allows the marketer to continue to provide and improve that offering, and does so efficiently. the exchange satisfies the customer and the marketer.
product (P's of social marketing)
-includes behavior that is being promoted AND the benefits that go along with it.
-create an enticing "Product" (i.e., the package of benefits associated with the desired action; ex. condoms, diet, air pollution)
-must first perceive that they have a genuine problem (product offering is a good solution for that problem)
Research discovers the consumers' perceptions of the problem and the product (determines how important they feel it is to take action against the problem)
price (P's of social marketing)
-barriers or costs (tangible or intangible) involved in adopting the behavior
-minimize the ______ the target audience believes it must pay in the exchange. (time, money, effort, comfort, inconvenience
-is it worth the cost? How much would you pay?
place (P's of social marketing)
-making the "product" accessible & convenient
-delivering benefits in the right place at the right time
-make the exchange and its opportunities available in "Places" that reach the audience and fit its lifestyles.
-______ describes where the audience will perform the behavior
-recommended behaviors always have competition which must be understood and addressed.
-the marketplace is constantly changing and so program effects must be regularly monitored and management must be prepared to rapidly alter strategies and tactics.
-_______describes the way that the product reaches the consumer.
tangible (determines "place")
-refers to the distribution system where it is sold, or places where it is given out for free (warehouse, sales force, retail outlets)
intangible (determines "place")
-refers to channels that reach consumers with information or training. (this may include doctors' offices, shopping malls, mass media vehicles or in-home demonstrations.)
-how to ensure accessibility of the offering and quality of the service delivery
-another element of place is deciding how to ensure accessibility of the offering and quality of the service delivery.
-by determining the activities and habits of the target audience, as well as their experience and satisfaction with the existing delivery system, researchers can pinpoint the most ideal means of distribution for the offering.
promotion (delivering the message to the audience)
-how the practitioner notifies the target market of the product
-also notifies of its benefits, reasonable cost, and convenience
-________ the exchange opportunity with creativity and through channels and tactics that maximize desired responses.
distribution channels (making the "product" available)
(most important "vehicles" for creating awareness of social products. as well as for distributing non-tangible products.)
Effectiveness varies greatly.
(the communication channels selected should be ones the target audience comes into contact with on a regular basis; perceived as being credible; audience must be familiar with a medium and with performers makes it easier to get message accepted)
-in urban areas, television, cinema, and radio (with due attention to the right broadcasting time) as well as magazines, newspapers, posters, and other print media can be effective.
-in rural areas, often only radio plus traditional "media" such as folk theater, puppet shows, and song and dance performances are appropriate.
spokesperson (representing the "product")
-essential that the target groups feel they are being personally addressed and taken seriously, with due respect to their human dignity and their private sphere.
-the selection (with regard to personality, ability to empathize, social esteem, age and sex, and so on) as well as to their training is important.
-local fairs and events making announcements
-can vary depending on audience and money
why the 4 P's
Looking for the optimal marketing mix that produces a timely exchange that:
-Offers a better choice than the competition
publics (additional social marketing "P's")
primary and secondary audiences involved in the program
partnership (additional social marketing "P's")
establishing collaboration with multiple partners who would work on the same issue
policy (additional social marketing "P's")
creating the environmental supports in order to sustain the behavior change
purse strings (additional social marketing "P's")
amount of money available at one's disposal for the campaign
-those factors that discourage people from taking an action they would otherwise do.
-to gain widespread adoption, common barriers to doing the action must first be removed.
-individuals should not be held solely responsible for taking action;
-networks, organizations and communities must work to remove barriers to make "the right choice the easier choice".
-nature of the product
-social bias and censure
-fear of side effects, complications, or other perceived negative results.
_____ ______ to see the advantages depends on....
-clarity of te message
-sensitivity to the target group's concern
social marketing exchange theory
-desired actions can be made more attractive to consumers by minimizing key barriers.
-this may involve reducing costs (price), expanding distribution (place), adequately informing consumers (promotion), and /or redefining the actions themselves (product).
social marketing wheel
1) planning and strategy
2) selecting channels and materials
3) developing materials and pretesting
5) assessing effectiveness
6) feedback to refine program
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