World History - Chapter 17 (Lesson 1 and 2)
Terms in this set (67)
Italian explorer who introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China, from his travels throughout there.
A book written by Marco Polo, in which he detailed his journeys in China
Economic Motives For European Expansion
To find new markets for products like spices.
Gold, glory and God
The three reasons for overseas exploring.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico.
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
An instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets
Chinese invention that aided navigation by showing which direction was north
Large, mostly circular systems of surface currents driven by the wind.
Prevailing winds that blow from east to west from 30 degrees latitude to the equator in both hemispheres
Prevailing winds that blow from west to east between 30 and 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres
Admiral Afonso de Albuquerque
He set up a port at Goa in Western India. then, sailed to Melaka for spices.
Spice trade center taken by Albuquerque
Europeans' name for the Moluccas, islands rich in cloves and nutmeg
Columbus and Magellan
Sailed for Spain. In 1492, he accidentally landed in the Americas in the Caribbean instead of reaching the East Indies. He thought he had reached Asia.
Portuguese mariner in the service of Spain, set sail in pursuit of Columbus's goal of reaching the Spice Islands by sailing westward; Commanded an expedition that was the first to circumnavigate the world.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Agreement dividing all discoveries in the New World between Spain & Portugal; other European countries soon ignored this agreement and claimed their own territories.
Early-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru. (Examples Cortez, Pizarro, Francisco.)
A conquistador like Cortes, who conquered the Incas in Peru and help to begin more advances in South America.
A group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country elsewhere.
West India Company
The Dutch formed this to compete with the Spanish and Portuguese. They tried to settle in New York but were not successful, they were overtaken by the English.
Areas which are now Canada and Louisiana
Areas the French colonized.
Virginia and Massachusetts Bay Colony
Areas where the English settled.
Customs and beliefs of certain groups of people.
A government in power
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
A product or good that is sold out of an economy to sell to another economy.
European trade agreement with Africa dealing with slaves brought from Africa. Integral part of Triangle Trade between the Americas, Africa, and Europe.
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies.
The Columbian Exchange
Global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas. Important foods: potatoes, corn, tomato, sugar cane. It also contributed to the spread of these diseases in the Americas. Syphilis, Typhus, Flu, Measles, Smallpox, Malaria.
Colonists used these to grow sugar, cotton, vanilla and other crops introduced to the Americas.
They improved the lives of Native Americans by enabling travelling longer distances and by making hunting more effective.
These became a staple food in Europe as a result of the Columbian Exchange.
American crops like sweet potatoes and maize helped fuel a population explosion here.
Island whose population was wiped out by the diseases Columbus brought.
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers (almost like slaves) on the land.
East India Company (Dutch)
Dutch trading company the gradually pushed the Portuguese out of the spice trade in Southeast Asia. The English soon followed and increased their presence in India.
British East India Company
Government charted joint-stock company that controlled spice trade in the East Indies after the Dutch and had control of India.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa.
Sources of Enslaved Africans
At first, prisoners of war but eventually villages were raided to find slaves.
Atlantic Slave Trade Effects
This was a tragedy for victims and their families, it depopulated regions of the strongest people and resulted in increased warfare in Africa.
Country heavily impacted by Atlantic Slave Trade. It became a corrupt and brutal place for a very long time because of the impact slavery had on the area.
Society of Friends
One of the first groups to condemn slavery in the 1770's.
Another term for the Society of Friends
How did epidemics among Native American populations contribute to the increase in slavery?
More slaves were needed to work in the plantations.
balance of trade
This is the difference between a country's total exports and total imports.
Population Growth In Europe
The import of new food products from the Americas helped fuel this.
smallpox, measles, and typhus
Diseases which decimated native populations as a result of the Columbian Exchange.
favorable balance of trade
Occurs when a country exports/sells more goods to other countries than it imports/buys from other countries
Government should encourage trade by stimulating industry and trade through these three strategies.
Subsidies, improving transportation, placing tariffs on foreign goods,
A grant of money from the government to aid new industries which need startup assistance. A way governments can help an economy
A tax on foreign goods. This helps to protect domestic industries so the domestic industries can be stronger and more profitable which is good for a country.
Benefits of colonies for host/established countries.
The colonies provide raw materials and they are also new markets for the country's finished goods.
European trade _________ as a result of exploration
European exploration and colonization in the Americas and Spice Islands led to the ____________ of local cultures and populations
This is gold or silver in bars or ingots. It is important in the mercantilism to stockpile this.
Goal of mercantilism
To become self-sufficient.
The demand for _______ increased with settlement of the Americas and the development of sugar plantations
The Dutch pushed these peoples out of the spice trade in Southeast Asia
English established trading posts in _______
England defeated _______ in the Seven Years War.
As part of triangular trade, Europe sent this to Africa
As part of triangular trade, Africa sent this to the Americans
As part of triangular trade, the Americas sent this to Europe
tobacco, molasses, sugar, cotton
governed forces (gravity & magnetism)
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