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Chosing their own path of development. 20 to 40 yrs. 2 basic identity statuses of adulthood: ethnic identity & vocational identity. Need for intimacy in adulthood - focuses on development of friendship, love and marriage.

The identity crisis sometimes causes ___________, __________, or __________. a more mature responses to the crisis would probably be to seek a _________________

confusion; diffusion;foreclosure; moratorium

Examples of mortoria include ____________________.

college, military service, religious mission work, apprenticeships, and internships..

In the United States and Canada, about ______________(what proportion?) of emerging adults are of African, Asian, Native American, or Latino heritage. Most of them _______________(identify/do not identify) with specific ethnic groups.

half; identify

Identity achievement ____________(is/is not) particularly difficult for immigrants. Briefly explain why this is so. ______________

is: Achieving identity is difficult for immigrants because it means reconciling their parents' background with their new social context.

For many emerging adults, attending college is important step toward achieving ___________identity


Today, beween the ages of 18 and 27 the average U.S. worker has held ________________jobs. For this and other reasons, many developmentalists wonder whether achieving a ___________identity today is an ______.

eight; vocational; illusion

Although continuity and change __________(are/are not) evident in personality in emerging adulthood, personality endures _________. However, personality is not _________________

are; lifelong; static

8. Research studies generally show that transitions such as entering college or getting a job are accompanied by ____________(increased/decreased) well-being.


Shifts toward positive development are especially apparent among emerging adults who, as children,displayed extreme _________ or marked ____________. These findings demonstrate ______in development.

shyness; aggression;plasticity

Which of the following would be the WORST advice for a young adult entering the job market. avoid diluting your skills, concentrate your education on preparing for one specific job.

In Erikson's theory, the identity crisis of adolescence is followed in emerging adulthood by the crisis of _____ ____ ___. The same need is expressed by other theorist as ___________, ______ ,________,________,_______,________. The most recent theor notes that an imortant aspect of close important aspect of close human connections is "__________-____________."

11. intimacy versius isolation; affiliation; affection; interdepenence; communion; belonging; love; self-expansion

To defend against stress and provide joy, _____ are particularly important. Briefly stat why this is so.

Friends choose each other, often for the very qualities that make them good sources of emotional support. they provide advice, companionship, information, and sympathy. They are also a source of self-esteem.

People tend to make more friends during the period of ___________- _____than at any other time.

emerging adulthood

Gender differences in friendship ____(are/are not ) expecially apparent during adulthood. In general, men's friendships are based on _______ _________ and _________, whereas friendships between women tend to be more ______ and ____________.

are; shared activites; interests; intimate; emotional.

More __________(women/men) than _______(women/men) are homophobic.

men; women

Cross-sex friendhsips are _________(more/less) common today that in the past.


(A Case to Study) Worldwide, couples today marry _______(earlier/later) that earlier cohorts did.


In about 1/3 of the worlds' families, marriage __________(is/is not ) based on romantic love. In another their of families, _______ _______is required. In the newest pattern, young people socialize, ___________, and marry when they are financially and emotional able to be independent.

is not; parental blessing; fall in love

Robert Sternberg has argued that love has 3 distinct components: ________________, __________, and _________.

passion; intimacy; commitment

Sternberg believes that the relative absence or presence of these components gives rise to __________(how many?) different forms of love.


For both men and women, _________ seems to fade, but ____increases when children are born. This is why most sexually active adults avoid pregnancy unless they believe their partner is a _____________mate.

passion; intimacy; commitment

Commitment takes time. It is stregthened by ______________ _________, and it is affected by __________.


When commitment is added to passion and intimacy, the result is ____________love.


Sexual encounters between two people in which neigher ____nor ______ are expected are called ________________.The desire for this type of arrangement may be stronger in young _________than in young _______________.

intimacy; commitment; hookups; men; women

Web sites such as ______and _______that allow users to connect with others, including potential _______partners, are called ___________ _________ one potential problem with technology in matchmaking is _____ _____ _____, which occurs when people perceive.

MySpace; Facebook; romantic; social networks; choice overload; too many choices

Increasingly common among young adults in many countries is the living attern called __________, in which two unrelated adults live together in a committed sexual relationship.


(Thinking Critically) cohabitation _____(does/does not) seem to benefit the participants. Cohabitants tend to be _____, _____and _____(morel/less) likely to end their relationship than married couples. Research also demonstrates that ________ _______is more common among cohabitant than among married couples. List some factors that lead to improvement in marriage over time.

does not; younger; poorer; more; domestic violence
Among the factors that held to improvement and good communication, financial security, growing maturity and the end of addiction or illness.

Marriage between people who are similar in age, SES, ethnicity, and the like is called ________________. Marriage that is outside the group is called _________. Similarity in preferred activities and ______, called _______- ______, is particularly important to long-term commitment.

homogamy; haterogamy; roles; social homogamy

Research by John Gottman demonstrates that _______ in marriage is less predictive of ________than _________ because the latter closes down ______. This finding is _______(widely supported/controversial). The destructive pattern called _________- ________interaction is common in ailing marriages.

conflict; separation; disgust; intimacy; controversial; demand/withdraw

There are numberous causes of domestic violence, including ___________

youth, poverty, personality (such as poor impulse control), mental illness, and drug and alcohol addiction...

One form of domestic abuse, _____________ _________ _________, entails outbursts of fighting, with both partners sometimes becoming involved, which is brought on more by the situation than by the individuals' personalities

situational couple volence

The second type of abuse, _________ _______, occurs when a partner, almost always the _______, uses a range of methods to punish and degrade the other.

intimate terrorism; male

Members of families have ____lives, meaning that experiences and needs of members at one stage are affected by those at other stages. Although emerging adults strive for independence, family support in the form of ________aid and gifts of time are important. Family dependence _______(vaires/does not vary) between Western nations and eveloping nations.

linked; financial; vaires...

Professor Samuels believes that people enlarge their understanding, resources, and experiences through their intimate friends. This idea is called

d. communion

Marie notes that her parent have been married for 25 yrs, even though each seems somewhat unfulfilled in terms of their relationship. Her friends had a similar relationship and divorced after 5 yrs. Give the research on what makes a marriage work how might Marie explain the differences?

b. "couples today expect more of each other."

Rwanda and Rodney have been dating for about a month. Their relationship is most likely characterized by

c. physical intimacy and feelings of closeness

I am 25 yr old. It is most likely that i

c. have never been married.

Arthur and Mabel have been married for 5 yrs. Accordiing to Sternber, if their relationship is staisfying one, which of the following best describes their relationship

a. They are strongly committed to each other

Philip and Phyllis have an ailing relationship. after dinner, Philip says, "We need to talk about this." In reply, Phyllis says,"I'm too busy" This pattern of interaction is called

b. demand/withdraw

Your sister, who is about to marry, seeks your advice on what makes a happy marriage. You should mention that all but which one of the following factors contribute to marital happiness?

a. cohabitiation before marriage
Cohabitation before marriage does not strengthen the relationship.

PT1. Multiple choice Questions: 1. According to Erik Erikson, the first basic task of adulthood is to establish _____________________

b. intimacy with others

2. Most developmental psychologists believe that identity

a. takes longer to achieve than in the past
c. (is harder for women to achieve than for men.) Identity formation is equally challenging for women and men

3. If asked to explain the high failure rate of marriages between young adults, Erik Erikson would most likely say that

b. intimacy is difficult ot establish until identity is formed.
a. (achievement goals are often more important than intimacy in emerging adulthood) In Erikson's theory, the crisis of intimacy preceeds the need to be productive through work
c&d: (divorce has almost become an expected stage in development & young adults today have higher expectations of marriage than did previous cohorts) Although these items are true, Erikson's theory does not address these issues.

4. Which of the following is true of emerging adults who are of African, Asian, Native American, or Latino heritage?

d. They tend to identify with very specific ethnic groups.

5. To determine ways to lower the high rate of divorce, Dr. Wilson is conducting research on marital satisfaction and the facts that contribute to it. Which for the following would he consider to be important factors?

d. homogamy, maturity and financial security

6. According to Erikson, the failure to achieve intimacy during emerging adulthood is most likely to result in

d. isolation
a. Generativitiy is a characteristic of the crisis following the intimacy crisis.
b. Stagnation occurs when generativitiy needs are not met.

7. Friendships are important for emerging adults because

d. friendship ties are voluntary, they defend against stress & they are likely to postpone marriage.

8. According to research by John Gottma, ________in marriage is less predictive of separation than ______.

b. disqust; conflict

9. According to Robert Sternberg, consummate love emerges

c. when commitment is added to passion and intimacy.

10. An arrangement in which two unrelated, unmarried adults live together in a romantic partnership is called

c. cohabitiation

11. Differences in religious customs or rituals are MOST likely to arise in a

b. hetergogamous couple
a. By definition, homogamous, couples share values, background and the like
c&d: T(cohabiting coupes & very young married couples)these may or may not be true, depending on the extent to which such a couple is homogamous.

12.Between ages 18 and 27, the average worker in the U.S. has how many jobs.

d. 8

13. homogramy is to heterogamy as

b. marriage within the group is to marriage outside the group.

14. The situation in which one partner in a romantic relationship wants to discuss an issue and the other refuses is called

b. demand/withdraw interaction
a. intimate terrorism is a violent form of partner abuse.
c.Heterogamy refers to marriage between people who are dissimilar in attitudes, SES, interest,ethnicity, and the like.
d. Homogamy refers to marriage between people who are similar in attitudes, SES, interrsts, ethnicity, and the like
a. intimate

15. During which period of life do people tend to make the most friends

c. emerging adulthood

True/False: 1. According to Erikson, the adult experiences a crisis of intimacy versus isolation after achieving identity. T/F


2. intimate partner violence is common only in certain countries.

intimate partner violence is common worldwide

3. According to Sternber, early in a relationship, companionate love is at its highest.

This come only with time

4. Cross-sex friendships are rarer today than in the past.

just the reverse is true

5. Cohabitiation solves all the problems that might arise after marriage.

Cohabitation does not solve the problems of marriage

6. Most successful couples learn to compromise.


7. Thoroughout the world, marriage is generally based on romantic love.

In about 1/3 of all nations, marriages are arranged by parents. In another1/3, parental blessing is required.

8. Because of the complexity of the high-tech work world, most young adults can expect to remain at the same job throughout their careers.

most young adults should learn basic skills so that they have the flexibility to move into different jobs.

9. Domestic violence is more common among cohabiting couples than among married couples.


10. According to some research, lust and affection arise from different parts of the brain.


Progress Test 2. 1: Emerging adults are more likely to avoid serious risk to their health and safety if they had

d. close relationships with their parents

2. The key difference between common couple vioence and intimate terrorism is ____.

b. The voilent control of one partner by the other in intimate terrorism

3. Kwame and Kendra both enjoy dancing, going to the movies, and working out. Developmentalist would say their marriage is characterized by

c. social homogamy

4. A hookup is best defined as

c. a sexual relationship involving neither intimacy nor commitment.

5. The Western ideal of love is best described in Sternberg's theory as

d. consummate

6. State all that are correct:


7. Whereas men's friendships tend to be based on ______, friendships between women tend to be based on ________.

c. shared interests: shared confidences

8. According to Robert Sternberg, the 3 dimensions of love are _________ __________ _________

d. passion, intimacy, and commitment.
a,b,c : According to Sternberg, consummate love emerges when commitment is added to passion and intimacy.

9. Research on cohabitiation suggests that

b. . emerging adults in the U.S., Canada and England cohabit at higher rates than those in Japan, Ireland,and Italy.
a. (there is little variation in why couples cohabit) Sligthly more than half of all women age 25 to 40 in the U.S. cohabit before their first marriage.
c. (adults who cohabit tend to be older and wealthier than married people) In fact, a large study of adults found that cohabitants were much less happy and healthy than married people.

10. A homogamous marriage is best defined as a marriage between

b. people of similar social backgrounds.
a&d;(people who are physically similar to each other & two caring people of the same sex) these characteristics do not pertain to homogamy.
c. (people of dissimilar socioeconomic backgrounds)This describes a heterogramous marriage.

11. Compared with married adults, cohabiting adults tend to

d. have all of these characteristics.

12. Today, male-female relationships

d. Today, male-female relationshipps.

13. My Space and Facebook are examples of

a. social networks.

Matching Items:1. choice overload

e. making acholic is difficult because there are so many possibilities

2. cohabitation

g. arrangement in which two unrelated, unmarried adults live together in aromantic partnership.

3. intimate terrorism

a. abusive relationship that leads to battered -wife syndrome.

4. heterogamy

d. a marriage between people with dissimilar interests and backgrounds

5. hookup

h. sexual encounter between two people in which neiher intimacy or commitment are expected

6. social exchange theory

f. predicts succes in marriages I which each partner contributes something useful to the other

7. social homogramy

c. the similaritiy with which a couple regards leisure interests an drole preferences

8. demand/withdraw

b. one partner in a romantic relationship wants to discuss and issue while the other does not

9. homogramy

i. a marriage between people with similar interests and backgrounds

10. common couple violence

j. abusive relationship that tens to improve with time.

Key Terms:1. intimacy versus isolation

According to Erik Erikson, the first crisis of adulthood is intimacy versus isolation, which involves the need to share one's personal life with someone else or risk profound loneliness and isolation.

2. hookups

are sexual encounters between two people in which neither intimacy nor commitment are expected.

3. social networks

are Web sites that allow users to share details of heir daily lives and connect with other people in numberous ways, including as romantic partners.

4. choice overload

occurs when having so many possibilites makes choosing one difficult

5. cohabitation

increasingly common among emerging adults in all industrialized countries is the living pattern called cohabitation, in which two unrelated, unmarried adults live together in a committed sexual relationship.

6. homogamy

refers to marriage between people who are similar in attitudes, goals, socioeconomic status, interests, ethnicity, religion, and the like.

7. heterogamy

refers to marriage between people who are dissimilar in attitudes, interests, SES, religion, ethnic background and goals.

8. social homogamy

is defined as similarity in leisure interests and role preferences.

9. demand/withdraw/interaction

occurs when a partner in a romatic relationship wants to address an issue and other refuses, resulting in opposite reactions.

10. situational couple violence

is a form of abuse in which both partners in a couple fight and yet are caring and affectionate. Is brought on more by the situation than the deep personality problems of the individuals.

11. intimate terrorism

is the form of partner abuse in which the abuser (usually a male) uses violent methods of accelerating intensity to isolate, degrade, and punish the victim (usually a female)

12. linked lives

Members of a family have linked lives in that the success, health, and well-being of each family member are connected to those of other members including those of another generation.

missing PT2: 14.
Having many possibilities or options in purchasing a product

d. may create choice overload.

missing PT2: 15. Our friendships are more intimate, emotional, and tend to share secrets. Who are we?

a. women

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