Ed Psych Exam 2
Terms in this set (152)
external stimuli, behaviors, and consequences
what's happening in the student's mind
Social Cognitive Theory
personal characteristics + behavior + environment = learning
-meaningful learning via active creation of knowledge
-a learning theory stating that "meaningful learning occurs when people actively try to make sense of the world- when they construct an interpretation of how and why things are..."
-the view that meaningful learning is the active creation of knowledge structures rather than a mere transfer of objective knowledge from one person to another.
What is an example of constructing knowledge?
Claims of Constructivism
-Meaningful learning is the active creation of knowledge structures from personal experience
-Social interaction and the negotiation of understanding with others can help learners construct knowledge
-Self-regulation by learners is a key to successful learning
-Authentic problems provide realistic contexts that contribute to the construction and transfer of knowledge
-a form of constructivist learning theory that emphasizes the role of assimilation and accommodation in constructing an understanding of the world in which one lives.
-achieving equilibrium (assimilation & accomodation)
-a form of constructivist learning theory that emphasizes how people use such cultural tools as language, mathematics, and approaches to problem solving in social settings to construct a common or shared understanding of the world in which they live
-the use of cultural tools (language,notations, norms) to construct knowledge.
- a form of constructivism that seeks to understand why learners from some cultural or social groups more early construct knowledge in school environments that others and to liberate the learning of students who experience difficulty in school environments, so that all students can successfully construct knowledge.
-understanding why learners from some cultural groups do better than from others and liberating students who experience difficulties in schools
-well formulated, solution procedures and evaluation standards are known.
-a clearly formulated problem with known solution procedures and known evaluation standards.
-a vaguely stated problem with unclear solution procedures and vague evaluation standards.
-vague, solution procedures and evaluation standards are not clear.
-an ill-structured problem that arouses strong feelings.
-a type of ill-structured problem that calls for two opposing view points.
Steps of problem-solving
1. Realize that problem exists - curiosity and dissatisfaction.
2. Understand the nature of the problem - knowledge and familiarity with the type.
3. Compile the relevant information - sources.
4. Formulate and carry out a solution.
5. Evaluate the solution- what worked, what didn't, and what's next?
Strengths of Constructivism
-Develops multiple perspectives
-Active use of previous knowledge
-Use of outside sources
Weaknesses of Constructivism
-More a theory than an instructional approach
-Teacher's role changes- more a guide and facilitator
-Teachers need to learn how to apply these ideas and feel comfortable
-Providing feedback to students can be difficult
-Standards and criteria to evaluate learning
-Misalignment with the standardized testing
-When knowledge and skills learned in one situation are applied to a new situation
-Students' ability to make transfer is a major goal of teaching
-Measuring transfer is one way in which researchers assess whether or not learning has occurred.
-Similar situations and concepts
-Domain and settings are similar within a short time from original learning
-A situation in which knowledge and skills learned at an earlier point in time in a particular context are used to help learn new information
-Different situations, not much overlap
-Domains and settings are NOT similar, long time from original learning
-automatic retrieval of newly learned knowledge or skill- generalization.
-Different settings and materials.
-Knowledge is automatically retrieved from memory
-a situation in which a previously
-Effortful application of knowledge and skills in new dissimilar situations.
-Knowledge is retrieved- much effort is needed
-A situation involving the conscious, controlled, somewhat, effortfu formulation of an "abstraction" (that is, a rule, schema
What makes transfer possible?
-Conceptual in depth understandings
-The similar context provides retrieval cues.
-Applying general principles
-Culture of transfer.
Research on Transfer
-Transfer has been studied since the turn of the century, still there is very little empirical evidence, showing meaningful transfer to occur and much less evidence showing it under experimental control.
-Transfer is probably rare and accounts for very little human behavior. The lesson learned from studies of transfer is that, if you want people to learn something, teach it to them. Don't teach them something else ad expect them to figure out what you really want them to do"
-Specific similarities between tasks
-A situation in which prior learning aids subsequent learning because of specific similarities between the two tasks
-Similar use of cognitive strategies
-A situation in which prior learning aids subsequent learning due to the use of similar cognitive strategies
"the willingness of a person to expend a certain amount of effort to achieve a particular goal under a particular set of circumstances."
-Direct actions toward specific goals; affects the choices we make/the activities we choose
-All children and adolescents are motivated
motivation resulting from personal characteristics or inherent in the task being performed
motivation resulting from factors external to the individual and unrelated to the task being performed
In what ways can extrinsic motivation be dangerous for learners?
"Excessive use of external rewards may lead to only temporary behavior chance, materialistic attitudes or decreased intrinsic motivation."
Task mastery goals
to master a task
to do well
Not to fail
why they succeed or fail
-Learners beliefs about why things happen to them
-Why they are doing well or poorly on academic tasks
-Influence learners optimism about future successes and actions they take to bring about those successes
Internal Locus of control
Factors within yourself
External Locus of Control
Factors outside yourself
Factors that will not change anytime soon
Factors that can change from one time to the next
Factors that can be influenced or changed
Factors beyond your control
Focused attention, increased cognitive functioning, persistence, and emotional involvement.
Intrinsic desire to understand a topic
Temporary, based on context-specific factors
-Intense engagement or absorbed concentration
-The challenge of the activity and student's skill should be high.
Nonevaluative picture of oneself and others
How people feel about their identity
Judgments about competence in specific areas
Beliefs about one's abilities to do specific tasks
-Establishment and maintenance of a classroom environment conducive to learning and achievement.
-Students consistently engaged.
-Productive learning activities.
-Student behaviors don't interfere with instructional goals.
Parent is accepting and child-centered
Parent is rejecting and parent-centered
Relationship is about building manual trust and respect, both perspectives honored, communication flows both ways
Relationship is about control, differing perspectives are not allowed, meaningful communication generally flows one way.
Relationship indulges the child entitlement, little control exercised
Relationship is non-existent , no communication, no parenting
-High in terms of demand and support
-Provide supportive environment
-High expectations and standards for behavior
-Explain WHY behaviors are acceptable or not
-Consistently enforce rules
-Include children in decision making
-Age-appropriate opportunities for independence
Physical Classroom Environment
Arrangement (objects and people), traffic patterns, availability of resources, bulletin boards
Psychological Classroom Environment
-Classroom climate- overall psychological atmosphere
-Feel safe, secure, willing to take risks and make mistakes
-Communicate acceptance, caring, and respect
-Create sense of community and belongingness
How can teachers prevent problems?
-Cope with overlapping situations
-Keep the whole class involved
-Introduce variety and be enthusiastic
-Be decisive in handling misbehavior
-Specify constructive behavior
How can teachers deal with misbehaviors?
-Signals- clearing your throat, staring, etc.
-Proximity and touch control
-Interest boosting- asking questions
-Helping over hurdles- clear directions
-Criticism and encouragement
What are instructional objectives asking?
-The goal of teaching
-What do you want students to know and be able to do after I complete a unit of instruction?
-How can I help students achieve these goals?
-broad, general statements of desired educational outcomes.
-specify the knowledge and skills students should be able to exhibit after a unit of instruction
-stresses knowledge and intellectual skills (Bloom's taxonomy)
-concentrates on attitudes and values
-focuses on physical abilities and skills
-an objective that specifies the behavior to be learned, the conditions
-identify the act, define conditions and name criteria
-useful for learning factual knowledge and simple skills
-describe types of behavior that would demonstrate a student's learning
-rely on 3 taxonomies (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor)
-useful for learning more complex and advanced types of knowledge and skills
-Writing clear objectives
-Aligning instruction with instructional objectives
-Aligning assessment (tests) with instruction
-Aligning assessment with instructional objectives
-collecting information about how much knowledge and skill students have
-Assignment of a number (score) or a rating ("excellent")
-the assignment of value to products, performances, or attributes of people according to a rule-governed system.
-making judgments about the acceptability of each student's level of learning
-the use of a rule-governed system to make judgments about the value or worth of a set of measures.
-Grading or scoring
-Focus is on products of learning
-Teachers make decisions (fail/pass)
-T-auditor, S- audited
-Testing done for the purpose of assigning a letter or numerical grade to sum up a student's performance at a variety of tasks over time.
-Focus is on learning process
-Feedback for teachers and students
-Collaboration of T-S
-Scores show learning processes
-T becomes an intentional learner
- A type of assessment that monitors a students' progress in order to facilitate learning father than to assign a grade.
-A process of formative assessment during which students reflect on the quality of their work, judge the degree to which it reflects explicitly stated goals or criteria, and revise accordingly
-Feedback for oneself from oneself
-It is not a matter of assigning oneself a grade
-A process of a formative assessment during which students reflect on the quality of work of their peers, judge the degree to which it reflects explicitly state goals or criteria and revise accordingly.
-Feedback is for a peer from another peer.
-It is not a matter of assigning each other a grade.
What are the dual purposes of assessment?
Assessment should serve the purposes of learning in addition to serving the purposes of accountability
What are written tests?
-Ask how much students know
-Multiple choice test, T/F and matching
What are performance assessments?
-Ask what students can do with what they know
-Direct writing assessments
-An assessment device that attempts gauge how well students can use basic knowledge and skill to perform complex tasks or solve problems under more or less realistic conditions.
-Compares the score of each student to the scores of other students to find out grades
-A system of grading that assumes classroom achievement will vary among a group of heterogeneous students because of such differences as prior knowledge, learning skills, motivation, and aptitude, and so compares the score of each student to the scores of other students in order to determine grades.
-There are few appropriate uses for this in classrooms.
-A standard (criterion) of achievement/performance
-Equal chance of getting As and Fs
-Provides information about strengths and weaknesses
-A system in which grades are determined on the basis of whether each student had attached a defined standard of achievement or performance.
Bad ways to Improve Grading Methods
-Insufficient instruction before testing
-Teaching for one thing and testing for another
-Using pop quizzes to motivate students
-Keeping the nature and content of their test secret
-Keeping the criteria for assignments secret
-The theory of behavior developed by B.F. Skinner based on the fact that organisms respond to their environments in particular ways to obtain or avoid particular consequences.
-Voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by consequences that follow.
-A way of strengthening a target behavior (increasing and maintaining the probability that a particular behavior will be repeated) by supplying a positive stimulus immediately after a desired response.
-A way of strengthening a target behavior by removing an aversive stimulus after a particular behavior is exhibited.
a method of weakening a target behavior by presenting an averse stimulus after the behavior occurs
a procedure that weakens a target behavior by temporarily removing the opportunity for the behavior to be awarded
-effective means of reducing or eliminating undesired behaviors, particularly those that are aggressive or disruptive, for both regular and mainstreamed children.
Causing a target behavior to cease by ignoring it
the learned ability to respond in similar ways to similar stimuli
a process in which individuals notice the unique aspects of seemingly similar situations and thus learn different ways of responding
promoting the learning of complex behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations to the terminal behavior
Fixed ratio schedule
reinforce after a set number of responses
-the use of operant conditioning techniques to modify behavior, generally by making rewards contingent on certain actions.
-shape behavior by ignoring undesirable responses and reinforcing desirable responses.
-a shaping technique that allows students to indulge in a a favorite activity after completing a set of instructional objectives.
-required work first, then reward.
-a behavior-strengthening technique that uses items of no inherent value to "purchase" other items perceived to be valuable .
-flexible reinforcement system.
-a behavior-strengthening technique that specifies desirable behaviors and consequent reinforcement.
-supply reinforcement after student completes mutually agreed-on assignment.
the withdrawal of previously earned positive reinforces as a consequence of undesired behavior, often used with a token economy.
an area of study that seeks to understand how people acquire, store and recall information, and how their current knowledge guides and determines what and how they will learn.
how humans attend to, recognize, transform, store, and retrieve information
The primary memory store that temporarily records (for 1 to 3 seconds) an incoming flow of data from the sense receptors.
A cognitive process that involves noting key features of a stimulus and relating them to previously stored information in an interactive manner.
The selective focusing on a portion of the information currently stored in the sensory register.
The second temporary memory store, which holds about seven bits of information for about 20 seconds.
A rather mechanical process that uses mental and verbal repetition to hold information in short-term memory for some immediate purpose.
A process that consciously relates new information to knowledge already stored in long-term memory.
Learning that occurs when new information or activities are made relevant by relating them to personal interests and prior experiences or knowledge.
Dual Coding Theory
A theory of elaboration that states that concrete objects and words are remembered better than abstract information because they are coded in memory as both visual images and verbal labels, whereas abstract words are only encoded verbally.
-The storehouse of permanently recorded information in an individual's memory.
-Plays an influential role throughout the information-processing system.
plural of schema; abstract information structures by which our store of knowledge is organized in long term memory.
Encoding Specificity Principle
The idea that material is more likely to be recalled when some part of it that was stored in long-term memory is available as a retrieval cue.
An approach to learning that emphasizes a few long, infrequently spaced study periods.
The practice of breaking up learning tasks into small, easy-to-manage pieces that are learned over several relatively brief sessions.
Knowledge about the operations of cognition and how to use them to achieve learning goal.
Social cognitive theory
An explanation of how people learn to become self-regulated learners through the interactive effects of their personal characteristics, behaviors, and social reinforcement.
Triadic reciprocal causation
The conceptual foundation of social cognitive theory, which specifies that learned capabilities are the product of interactions among an individual's personal characteristics, behaviors and social environment.
The conscious and purposeful use of one's cognitive skills, feelings, and actions to maximize the learning of knowledge and skills for a given task and set of conditions.
-The degree to which people believe they are capable or prepared to handle particular tasks.
-Influence the use of self-regulating skills.
-Influences goals and activities, cognitive processing and emotions.
-Consistently and spontaneously using various capabilities in new situations.
-Important because students are expected to become increasingly independent learners as they progress through school.
a teaching strategy that encourages children to seek solutions to problems either on their own or in group discussion
-The idea that problem-solving skills, cognitive strategies, and knowledge are closely linked to the specific context or environment in which they are acquired; hence, the more authentic, or true to life, the task, the more meaningful the learning.
the identification and application of knowledge and skills that result in goal attainment
The process of finding ways to express a problem so as to recall the optimal amount of solution-relevant information long-term memory.
a general approach to solving problems, such as studying worked examples of breaking problems into parts, that can be applied to different subject areas.
Transfer of Learning
the ability to apply knowledge and problem-solving skills learned in school to similar but new situations
the response of an entire class to a reprimand directed at only one student
-an attribute of teachers who prove to their students that they know what is going on in a classroom and as a result have fewer discipline problems than teachers who lack this characteristic.
-teachers who show this are able to head off discipline problems.
a situation in which one person has more power than another and repeatedly abuses that power for his or her own benefit.
statements that are written by teachers and specify the knowledge and skills students should be able to exhibit after a unit of instruction
A classification scheme with categories arranged in hierarchical order
Cognitive Domain Taxonomy
-A classification scheme of instructional outcomes that stresses knowledge and intellectual skills, including comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
-Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation.
Affective Domain Taxonomy
A classification of instructional outcomes that concentrates on attitudes and values
Psychomotor Domain Taxonomy
A classification of instructional outcomes that focuses on physical abilities and skills
State specific objectives that identify the act, define conditions, name criteria.
-an approach to instruction that emphasizes the efficient acquisition of basic skills and subject matter through lectures and demonstrations, extensive practice, and corrective feedback.
-focus on learning basic skills, have teacher make all decisions, keep students on task, provide opportunities for practice, give feedback.
an approach that uses small heterogeneous groups for purposes of mutual help in the mastery of specific tasks.
students construct meaningful knowledge schemes.
an electric environment that provides students with materials and resources to discover interesting phenomena and construct new insights.
Guided Learning Environment
A classroom or computer based environment in which teachers, experts, or more knowledgeable peers support student inquiry by helping student set plans and goal, ask questions, discuss issues, solve problems and reflect on strategies and solutions.
An instructional method that requires learners to develop solutions to authentic and complex problems through problem analysis, hypothesis generation, collaboration, reflection, and extensive teacher coaching and facilitation.
an approach to instruction that emphasizes the effect of student needs, values, motives, and self-perceptions on learning.
Activities in which group learners use and combine their individual talents and areas of expertise to investigate problems, negotiate id1eas, generate knowledge, and design products.
The skills and knowledge measured by the test can be described with sufficient clarity that they make instructional planning easier.
A collection of one or more pieces of a person's work, some of which typically demonstrate different stages of completion.
-A scoring guide used in performance assessment that helps define and clarify levels of student performance from poor to exemplary.
-Any one is not likely to represent the domain of writing fully and may provide few or no opportunities for scores to reward certain desirable writing skills.
Zimmerman Self-Regulated Learning
-Self-regulation is not a mental ability or an academic performance skill; rather it is the self-directive process by which learners transform their mental abilities into academic skills. Learning is viewed as an activity that students do for themselves in a proactive way rather than as a covert event that happens to them in reaction to teaching. Self-regulation refers to self-generated thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are oriented to attaining goals.
-These learners monitor their behavior in terms of their goals and self-reflect on their increasing effectiveness.
-Problem solving certainly involves cognition.
-Critical thinking may be a litter harder to define, but here is a first approximation: critical thinking is evaluating ideas for their quality, especially judging whether or not they make sense.
-When a teacher "thinks aloud" particularly during problem solving, his or her verbalizations can be a powerful source of cognitive processing that can be internalized by students.
Transfer of Learning (Perkins)
-Mindful or far road transfer involves deliberate effortful abstraction and a search for connections.
-Relatedly, metacognitive reflection on one's thinking processes appears to promote transfer of skills.
-Mindfulness refers to a generalized state of alertness to the activities one is engaged in and to one's surroundings, in contrast with a passive reactive mode in which cognitions, behaviors, and other responses unfold automatically and mindlessly.