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21 terms

Genetics Vocabulary

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traits
the physical characteristics an individual/ organism has
inherited
traits that are passed down from parents to offspring
genetics
the scientific study of heredity
chromosomes
the nucleus has tiny rod-shaped bodies, made up of many genes
genes
a chromosome is made up of a chain of these, they pass on traits
DNA
compound that makes up genes
body cells
have paired chromosomes
23
each body cell has this number of pairs of chromosomes.
46
total number of chromosomes
gametes
have unpaired chromosomes (23) a human sperm or egg
alleles
the different forms of a gene
recessive allele
an allele whose trait is masked in the presence of a dominant allele.
hybrid
an organism with two different alleles for a trait
dominant allele
an allele whose trait is masked in the presence of a dominant allele.
Punnett Square
a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
heterozygous
an organism that has two different alleles for a trait
genotype
an organism's that has two different alleles for a trait
codominance
inheritance pattern in which the alleles are neither dominant nor recessive
probability
the likelihood that a particular event will occur
homozygous
an organism that has two identical alleles for a trait.
phenotype
an organism's physical appearance