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Terms in this set (61)
What is the latent image?
Image in film before processing but after exposure
What happens as a result of an oxidation reaction?
Black metallic silver remains on the film
What is removed from the film?
Unexposed, unenergized silver halide crystals
Correct processing order for manual tanks:
Development, rinsing, fixation
What is the first step in film processing?
What is the purpose of developing?
Chemically reduce the exposed, energized silver halide crystals into black metallic silver
What happens to film emulsion in the development stage?
What happens to emulsion in the fixation stage?
What stage are all excess chemicals removed from emulsion?
What processing solutions are mixed with distiller water before use?
Concentrated powder and liquid film
What is normal use of processing chemistry?
30 intraoral films per day
What is the preservative in developer?
What activates the developing agents?
Sodium carbonate (accelerator)
What does hydroquinone generate?
Black tones and sharp contrast of radiographic image
What is the restrainer used in developer solution?
What is Elon?
Generates many shades of grey
Not temperature sensitive
Known as metol
Optimal temperature for developer solution:
68 degrees Fahrenheit
Films processed below 60 degrees would result in:
What is the purpose of the preservative?
Prevent developer solution from oxidizing in the presence of air
The gelatin of the emulsion is softened by:
Developing agents only active in:
Basic environment (high pH)
Restrainer stop development of:
Unexposed crystals more than exposed crystals
Potassium alum is a component of:
Fixer solution (not developer solution)
Sodium thiosulfate is a component of:
Fixer solution (commonly known as hypo)
What is the the purpose of the fixing agent?
Remove all unexposed silver halide crystals from film emulsion
What is the preservative in the fixer solution?
Hardening agent in fixture solution:
Purpose of hardening agent:
Harden and shrink gelatin in film emulsion
Acidifier used in fixer solution:
Fixing agent used in fixer solution:
Leaks of white light in a dark room cause:
What is a safelight?
Low-intensity light composed of long wavelengths of visible light spectrum
Where is safelighting on the light spectrum?
Where should a safelight be placed?
Minimum of 4 feet away from film
What happens when film in exposed to safelight longer than 2-3 minutes?
Film will appear fogged
Why is a mixing value used with manual tanks?
Control the temperature of the water bath in master tank
How many insert tanks fit into the master tank?
Where is the developer solution typically placed?
In the insert tank to the left
What is the master tank filled with?
Temperature controlled water (controlled by mixing valve)
What does the light-tight lid protect against?
The solutions from oxidation and evaporation
What may be used in a room with a white light?
Automatic film processors with daylight loaders
What is clipped to the side of the developing tank for manual processing?
A timer is used to indicate time intervals during manual processing:
Developer solution, rinse water, fixer solution and wash water
What are film hangers?
A device used to hold films during processing
What is the purpose of a stirring rod?
To mix the chemicals and equalize the temperature of the solutions
When should developer solution be changed?
At the same time as the fixer solution
What does an exhausted developer produce?
A radiograph with reduced density and reduced contrast
What does exhausted fixer produce?
A radiograph that will turn yellow-brown color (exhausted fixer does not stop chemical reaction)
When should developer and fixer solutions be replenished?
When should master tanks be cleaned?
Each time solutions are changed
What is the best choice for cleaning master and insert tanks?
A solution of hydrochloric acid and water
What is a major advantage of automatic processing vs manual film processing?
Less processing time
In automatic processing, how is the film transported?
Directly from developer solution into fixer without a rinsing step
What is an extraoral cleaning film used for?
Cleaning residual gelatin or direst from rollers
Underdeveloped films may result from:
Low developer temperature or inadequate development time
Overdeveloped films may result from:
Over concentrated developer solution or high developer temperature
What does reticulation mean?
Film appears cracked
What does insufficient fixation and rinsing time lead to?
Developer cutoff appears as:
Straight white border on film
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