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Arts and Humanities
History of the Environment
AP Human Geography Unit 5 Flashcards
Terms in this set (52)
deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing animals to obtain economic gain
adapting wild animals and plants for human use
hearths of domestication
southwest asia,, southeast asia, and the Americas
First agricultural revolution (neolithic)
started 12,000 years ago with the first seed farming and use of animals, slowly started to replace hunter and gather lifestyle, and created the ability to produce more food without traveling led to a growth in populations and first civilizations
The fertile crescent
an area of fertile land in the Middle East, extending around the Rivers Tigris and Euphrates in a semicircle from Israel to the Persian Gulf, where the Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Phoenician, and Hebrew civilizations flourished.
bridged the gap between the Americas and the rest of the world. Basically any form of trade between the Americas and the rest of the world. (refers to a period of cultural and biological exchanges between the New and Old Worlds. Exchanges of plants, animals, diseases and technology transformed European and Native American ways of life.)
usually used in hilly of mountainous landscapes to create flat land areas to store water and allow crops to dig in soil. Very common in Southeast Asia
bringing water for crops from a distance using canals, ditches, hoses, or machines
cutting down trees in order to clear land for agricultural use. Can have negative environmental affects. (big problem in brazil)
clearing water from wetlands and swamps to make land accessible for farming. Can lead to the destruction of an ecosystem if not done properly.
second agricultural revolution
occurred mainly on the industrial revolution in modern day MDC's, people started moving to cities to work and rural farmers invented tools and machines to aid in farming, more food was available which caused the population to spike
third agricultural revolution
occurred in the 1950's-60's (also referred to as the Green revolution), when chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and new irrigation practices were diffused to LDC's, high yield seeds also used
high yield seeds
crops that produce more food per farming cycle than other wild varieties. High-yield seeds are often genetically modified to produce desirable shapes and sizes for increased food production.
farming techniques that use high quantities of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides to accommodate genetically modified seeds or less fertile soil. Chemical farming is associated with the green revolution.
farming techniques that rely on machines to more efficiently produce crops. Mechanized farming is more common in MDC's
Chemicals that are used to kill pests that can eat crops and decrease yields. One of the main tools of the Green Revolution that increase crop yields. Has negative environmental effects.
chemicals that are used to kill invasive weeds that can steal water from crops and decrease yields. One of the main tools of the Green Revolution that increases crop yields. Has negative environmental effects
Chemicals that are used to increase the speed, tolerance, and overall yield of a crop. One of the main tools of the Green Revolution that increase crop yields. Has negative environmental effects.
Regions of the planet that share a common climate and biological makeup of plants and animals. Certain agricultural products and/or practices are associated with specific bioclimatic zones such as "Mediterranean agricultural region.
the ares surrounding the mediterranean sea, chile, western USA (many intensive crops)
a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is for crops for few years and then left to fallow for a long period of time(crops are based on what is naturally found in the regions)
a form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of animals
the production of food primarily for consumption by the farmers family
the production of food primarily for sale off the farm.
intensive land use
any farming practice that is done in small amounts and usually requires more intensive care by the farmer for success
the small-scale of fruits/vegetables/flowers as cash crops which are frequently sold directly to customers and resturaunts
uses unfair wages, and can be tied in with present day slave labor. tropical and sub-tropical regions of latin America, Africa, Asia
mixed crop/livestock systems
arming systems conducted by households or by enterprises where crop cultivation and livestock rearing together form integrated components of a single farming system
extensive land use/farming
any farming practice that is done over a large area where the agricultural density is low. Usually requires less management of the agricultural product by farmers
management of animals into large groups or herds by humans for the production of food and other resources the animal can renew
seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
practiced in commercial farming, manages cattle and various livestock; A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food processing industry, usually through ownership by large companies/ corporations
the link of products from growth, to processing, to manufacturing of the final product, to distrubution of the final product to stores. The global commodity supply chain is the engine that drives modern agribusiness.
clustered settlement pattern
many buildings are grouped together and are often found in lowland areas along roads
dispersed settlement pattern
buildings are spread out and and are often found in hilly mountainous terrain
linear settlement pattern
buildings are built in lines along a road, railroad, or river
Von Thunens model
an agricultural model used to show the relationship between markets, production, and distance
A form of "truck" farming ..., where special fruits and vegetables that people want are farmed
the degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting
using scientific research to provide higher yield crops and more productive animal by-products. The end result is an increase in agricultural productivity (the amount of agricultural products that can be created)
the alteration of a plant, animal, and microorganisms DNA to genetically engineer an organism that would not occur naturally. Has led to a vast increase in the yield and quality (arguably) of agricultural products worldwide. One of the innovations from the Green Revolution.
A natural approach to farming that uses biological diversity to fight the pests so as to not use any pesticides or fertilizers. Results in lower yields than commercial farming but has health and environmental benefits.
the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants in a controlled environments. Different than commercial fishing.
agricultural and industrial practices that promote a limited or "net neutral" impact on the environment and its ability to sustain been criticized for damaging the sustainability can lead to permanent negative environmental impacts.
the decline in soil quality as a result of improper use. One of the main arguments against chemical farming is that the pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers damage the soil quality. Can lead to desertification or loss of top soil
reduction in biodiversity
commercial farming, specifically plantation farming and specialty farming, has led to an overall reduction in biodiversity due to monoculture (a single crop over vast amounts of land). Lack of biodiversity can lead to sustainability issues.
overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed ti intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods.
commercial farming activities require considerably more water than intensive subsistence farming. As a result there are instances where water depletion has become a major concern.
Value added specialty crops
"value added" goods have some other product in them or item attached to them to make them unique and able to sell at higher price.
labeling products fair trade tells the consumer that by purchasing that product producers get a fair price for their goods.
sales of foods and demand for food at local farmers markets across the USA have increased in recent years. while the food is the main draw there are also less tangible forces at play such as community and the expierence of shopping at a local food event.
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