Measuring psychological characteristics such as intelligence is taking a _______approach to research.
Historically, psychologists have thought of intelligence as ________(a single entity/ several distinct abilities).
a single entity
A leading theoretician, _______, argued that there is such a thing as general intelligence, which he called ____________.
For the first half of the twentieth century, psychologists were convinced that intelligence peaks during _____and then gradually declines. Durling the 1950s, Nancy Bayley and Melita Oden found that on several tests of concept master, the scores of gifts individiual _____________(increased/decreased-remained unchanged) between 20 and 50.
Follow-up research by Bayley demonstrated a general ____________(increased/decrease) in intellectual functioning from childhood through young adulthood. This developmental trend was true on tests of __________ __________, and __________.
increase; vocabulary; comprehension; information
Bayley's study is an example of _____________(cross-sectional/longitudal) research design. Earlier studies relied on ____________(cross-sectonal/longitudinal) research desings.
Briefly explain why cross-sectional research can sometime yield a misleading picture of adult development.
Cross-sectional research may be misleading because each cohort has its own unique history of life experiences and because in each generation, academic intelligence increases a result of improved educatoin and health.
Throughout the world, studies have shown a general trend toward ______________(increasing decreasing average) IQ over successive generations. This trend is called the _____ _____
increasing; Flynn effect
Cite three reasons that longitudinal finding may be misleading.
a. People who are retested several times may improve their performance simply as a result of pratice
b. Because people may drop out of lengthy longitudinal studies the remaining subjects my be a self-selected sample
c. Longitudinal research takes a long time
One of the first researcher to recognize the problems of cross-sectional and lognitudinal studies of intelligence was ______.
K. Warner Schaie
Schaie developed a new research technique combining cross-sectional and longitudinal approach- research
Briefly explain this type of research design.
In this approach, each time the original group of subjects is retested, a new group is added and tested at each age interval.
Using this design, Schale found that on five _____ _____ _____, most people improved throughout most of adulthood. The results of his research are known collectively as the _________ _______ __________.
primary mental abilities; Seattle Longitudinal Study
Professor Iglesias is a psychometrician. This means that she specializes in the
c. measurement of psychological characteristics especially intelligence.
A psychlogist has found that the mathematical ability of adults born in the 1920s is significantly different from that of those born in the 1950's she suspects that this difference is a reflection of the different educational emphasis of the two historical periods. This is an example of
c. a cohort effect
a&b: (longitudinal research & sequential research) From the information given, it is impossible to determine which research method the psychologist used.
A contemporary developmental psychologist is most likely to DISAGREE with the statement that
c. intelligence peaks during adolescence and declines thereafter.
Regarding their accuracy in measuring adult intellectual decline, cross-sectional research is to longitiudinal research as _________is to __________-
b. overestimate; underestimate
c&d:(accurate;inaccurate & inaccurate; accurate) both cross-sectonoal and longitudinal research are potentially misleading.
Dr. Hatfield want to analyze the possible effects of retesting, cohort differences, and aging on adult changes in intelligence. Which research method should she use?
a&b: (cross-sectional& longitudinal) Schaie developed the cross-sequential research method to overcome the drawbacks of the cross-sectional and longitudinal methods which were susceptible to cohort and retesting effects, respectively.
d. (case study) A case study focuses on a single subject and therefore could provide no information on cohort effects.
In the 1960's researchers ______and _________ differentiated two aspects of intelligence, which they called _______ and __________intelligence.
Raymond Cattel; John Horn: fluid; crystallized
As its name implies, __________intelligence is flexible reasoning used to draw inferences and understand relations between concepts. This type of intelligence is also made up of basic mental abilities, including __________ ______, _____________ __________and _______ _______ _.________
fluid; abstract analysis; working(short-term) memory: speed of thinking
The accumulation of facts, information and knowledge that comes with education and experience with a particular culture is referred to as ________________intelligence.
During adulthood, _______intelligence declines markedly, primarily because of everything slows down with age. However, if a person's intelligence is simply measured by one ____score, this decline is temporarily disguised by a ___ (increase/decrease) in _________intelligence.
fluid; IQ; increase; crystallized
The theorist who has proposed that intelligence is composed of 3 fundamental aspects is ___________. The __________aspect consists of the mental processes that foster academic proficiency by making efficient learning, remembering, and thinking possible. This type of thinking is particularly valued at _________(what stage of life)?
Robert Sternberg; analytic; emerging adulthood.
The ____aspect enables the person to be flexible and innovation when dealing with new situations. This type of thinking is always ____rather than __________, meaning that such thinkers frequently find ______solutions to problems rather than ______ meaning that such thinkers frequently find ______solutions to problems rather than relying on the one that has always been considered correct.
creative; divergent; convergent; unusal (unexpected, imaginative)
_____________ aspect concerns the ability to adapt to the contextual demands of a given situation. This type of thinking is particularly useful for managing the conflicting personalities is a______or __________.
Practical; family; organization
Practical intelligence _________(is/is not) related to traditional intelligence as measured by IQ tests.
The value placed on different dimensions of intellectual ability ____________(varies/does not vary) from culture to culture _________(and /but not) from one stage of life to another. Another factor is the ___________context.
varies; and ; historical
Paul Baltes believes that ________, is significant during childhood but that ________becomes increasingly important in adulthood.
In Sternberg's theory, which aspect of intelligence is most similar to the abilities comprising fluid intelligence?
This aspect consists of mental processes fostering academic proficiency by making efficient learning, remembering and thinking possible
b. (creative) This aspect concerns the extent to which intellectual functions are applied to situations that are familiar or novel in a person's history.
c. (practical)This aspect concerns the extent to which intellectual functions are applied to situations that are familiar or novel in a person's history.
Sharetta knows more about her field of specialization now at age 45 than she did at age 35.
a. an increase in crystallized intelligence
b&c: (an increase in fluid intelligence & an increases in both fluid and crystallized intelligence) According to the research, fluid intelligence declines during adulthood.
d. (a cohort difference) Cohort effects refer to generational differences in life experiences.
Joseph has remained associated with interesting and creative people throughout his life. In contrast, James has become increasingly isolated as he has aged. Given these lifestyle differences, which aspect of intelligence will be most affected in Joseph and James?
b. crystalized intelligence
Because the maintenance of crystallized intelligence depends partly on how it is used, the consequences of remaing socially involved or of being socially isolated become increasingly apparent in adulthood.
When Merle retired from teaching, he had great difficulty adjusting to the changes in his lifestyle. Robert Sternberg would probably say that Merle was somewhat lacking in which aspect of his intelligence?
Creative intelligence enables the person to accommodate successfully to changes in the environment, such as those accompaniment of retirement.
a. (analytic)This aspect of intelligence consists of mental processes that foster efficient learning, remembering, and thinking.
c.(fluid) Fluid intelligence is not an aspect of Sternberg's theory. Moreover, it refers to basic mental abilities such as short-term memory.
d. (plasticity) Plasticity refers to the fexile nature of intelligence; it is not an aspect of Sternberg's theory.
Compared with her 20 yr old daughter, 40 yr old Lynda is likely to perform better on measure of what type of intelligence?
Researcher such as Paul and Margaret Baltes have found that people devises alternative strategies to compensate for age-related decline in ability. The Balteses call this ___________ _________ __ _.
selective optimization of compensation.
Some develop-mentalists believe that as we age, we develop specialized competencies, or ___in activities that are important to us in other words, each person becomes a ________ ______
expertise; selective expert
There are several indifferences between experts and novices. first , novices tend to rely more on ____________(formal/ informal) procedures and rules to guide them, where as experts rely more on their ______ ___and the immediate ______to guide them. this makes the actions of experts more _________ and less _____.
formal; past experiences; context; intuitive; stereotypic...
Second, many elements of expert performance become ___, almost instinctive, which enable experts to process information more quickly and efficiently. This type of thinking is called _______ ____.
automatic; automatic processing
A third difference is that experts have more an better _______for accomplishing a particular task.
In developing their abilities, experts point to the importance of ___, usually at least several hours a day for ____(how long?) before their full potential is achieved. This highlights the importance of ______in the development of expertise.
practice: 10 years; motivation
Research studies indicate that the benefits of expertise are quite __________(general/specific) and that practice and specialization __________ (can/ cannot ) always overcome the effects of age.
Historically, research on expertise has focused on occupations that once had more __________ (males/females) than ________(males/ females) workers. Today, more women ____(are/are not ) working in occupations traditionally reserved for me. In addition, domestic care giving tasks that were once considered ___________ _______ have gained new respect and are considered ____when performed by women and men.
males; females; are; women's work; important
Compared with novice chess players, chess experts most likely
d. are quite flexible in their play, relying on their years of practice and accumulated experience
a&b.(have superior long-term memory & have superior short-term memory):The text does not suggest that experts have special memory abilities!
c. (are very disciplined in their play, sticking closely to formal rules for responding to certain moves their opponents might make.)This describes the performance of novice rather than experts.
Progress Test 1: 1. Most of the evidence for an age-related decline in intelligence came from
a. cross-sectional research
b.(longitudinal research) Although results from this tpe of research may also be misleading, longitudinal studies often demonstrate age-related increases in intelligence.
c. (cross-sequential research) Cross-sequential reseasrch is the technique devised by K. Warner Schaie that combines the strengths of the cross-sectional and longitudinal methods.
d.(random sampling) Random sampling refers to the selection of subjects for a research study.
2. The major flaw in cross-sectional research is the virtual impossiblity of
a. selecting subjects who are similar in every
b. (tracking all subjects over a number of years) this is a problem in longitudinal research
c&d: (personal interviews & both cross-sectional and longitudinal methods) neither of these is particularly troublesome in cross-sectional research.
3. Because of the limitations of toher research methods, K.Warner Schaie developed a new research design based on
d. .both cross-sectional and longitudinal methods
a,b,c:(observe-participant methods & in-depth questionnaires & personal inerviews) Cross-seequential research as described in this chapter is based on objective intelligence testing.
4. Why don't traditional intelligence tests reveal age-related cognitive decline during adulthood?
d. They yield a single IQ score, allowing adulthood increases in crystallized intelligence to mask these declines
a&b: (They measure only fluid intelligence & They measure only crystallized intelligence)Traditional IQ tests measure both fluid and crystallized intelligence.
5. Which of the following is most likely to DECREASE with age?
c. working memory
a,b,d: (vocabulary & accumullated facts & practical intelligence) these often increase with age
6. The basic mental abilities that go into learning and understanding any subject have been classified as
c. fluid intelligence
a. Crystallized intelligence is the acumulation of facts and knowledge that comes with educatoin and experience.
b. Although inteligence is characterizd by plasticity, "plasatic intelligence" is not discussed as a specific type of intelligence.
d. Rote memory is memory that is based on th econscious repetition of to-be-remembered information.
7. Some psychologist content that intelligence consists of fluid intelligence, which _________during dulthood, and crystallized intelligence, which ______________
8. Charles Spearman argued for the existence of a sing general intelligence factor, which he referred to as
b. (Practical intelligence) refer to the intellectual skills used in everyday problem solving and is identified in Sternberg's theory.
c&d:(analytic & creative intelligence) These are two other aspects of intelligence indentified in Sternberg's theory.
10. The shift form conscious, deliberate processing of information to a more unconscious, effortless performance requires
a. automatic responding
b. (subliminal execution)this was not discussed in the chapter
c. Plasticity refers to the flexible nature of intelligence.
d. encoding refers to the placing of information into memory.
11. Concerning expertise, which of the following is true?
c.In performing tasks, experts tend to be more flexible and to enjoy experimentation more than novices do.
a,b,d: (In performing tasks, experts tend to be more set in t heir eways, preferring to use strategies that have worked in the past & The reasoning of experts is ususally more formal, disciplined, and sterotypic than that of the novice * Experts often have difficulty adjusting to situations that are exceptions to the rule).These are more typical of novices than experts.
12. In general, as people age they specialize in activities that are personally meaningful. In other words, each person
d. becomes a selective partner
13. Which of the following describes the results of Nancy Bayley's follow-up study of members of the Berkeley study?
c. The typical person at age 36 was still improving on the most important sub tests of the intelligence scale.
b. (The typical person at age 36 improved on 2 of 10 sub tests of adult intelligence scales; picture completion and arithmetic) the text does not indicate that they improved on those tests.
d. (No conclusions could be reached because the sample of subjects was not representative)no such criticism was made of Bayley's study.
14. Which of the following is NOT one of the general conclusions of research about intellectual changes during adulthood?
d. Intelligence becomes less specialized with increasing age.
In fact, intelligence often becomes more specialized with age.
15. The psychologist who has proposed that intelligence is composed of analytic, creative and practical aspects is
c. Robert Sternberg.
a. Charles Spearman proposed the existence of an underlying general intelligence, which he called g.
b. Paul Baltes coined the term selective optimization with compensation
d. K. Warner Schaie was one of the first researchers to recognize the potentially distorting cohort effects on cross-sectional research..
2. A person's IQ is unaffected by school achievement
Intellectual functions as measure by IQ tests is powerfully influenced by school achievement
3. To date. Cross-sectional research as shown a gradual increase in intellectual ability.
Cross-sectional research shows a decline in intellectual ability.
4. Longitudinal research usually shows that intelligent in most abilities increase through out early and middle adulthood.
5. By the age 60, most people decline in event the most basic cognitive abilities
Many adults show intellectual improvement over most of adulthood, with not decline, even by age 60.
7. All people reach an intellectual peak in adolescence.
Psychologist now agree that intelligence does NOT peak in adolescences and decline thereafter. .
8. Historically, most psychologists have considered intelligence to be comprised of several distinct abilities.
historically, psychologists have conceived or intelligence as a single entity.
9. Today, most researcher studying cognitive abilities believe that intelligence is multi-dimensional
10. Compared with novices, exerts tend to be more intuitive and less sterotyped in their work performance.
Progress Test 2 : 1: The debate over the status for adult intelligence focuses on the question of its inevitable decline and on
c. its possible continuing growth
2. Which of the following generational differences emerge in Schaie's studies of intelligence?
b. Recent cohorts of young adults were better at reasoning ability, but worse at math, than those who were young in previous decades.
3. The accumulation of facts that comes about with education and experience has been classified as
a. The accumulation of facts that comes about with education and experience has been classified as
b. Although intelligence is characterized by plasticity, "plastic intelligence" is not discussed as a specific type of intelligence.
c. Fluid intelligence consists of the basic abilities that go into the understanding of any subject.
d. Rote memory is based on the conscious repetition of to-be-remembered information.
4. According to the text, the current view of intelligence recognizes all the following characteristics EXCEPT
This is Charles Spearman's term for his idea of a general intelligence, like which intelligence is a single entitiy.
a. Multidirectionality simply means that abilities follow different trajectories with age, as explained throughout the chapter.
b. Plasticity simply refers to the ability to change.
c. Inter-individual variation is a way of sayng that each person is unique.
5. Thinking that is more intuitive, flexible, specialized and automatic is characteristic of
6. IQ scores increased over the 20th century in part because
c. later cohorts have had more education
7. Which of the following is NOT true regarding family skills?
d. A "maternal instict" is innate to every mother.
The following are true regarding family skills:
- a. They were undervalued skills in earlier generations.
- b. They were once considered the primary responsibility of women
- c. They are now recognized and valued as expert work by both women and men.
8. At the present stage of research in adult cognition, which of the following statement has the most research support?
b. Each person's cognitive development occurs in a unique context influenced by variations in genes, life experiences, and cohort effects.
a. (Intellectual abilities inevitably decline from adolescence onward) there is agreement that intelligence does NOT peak during adolescence.
c. (some 90% of adults tested in cross-sectional studies show no decline in intellectual abilities until age 40) Cross-sectional research usually provides evidence of declining ability throughout adulthood.
d. (Intelligence becomes crystallized for most adults between ages 32 and 41) Crystalized intelligence refers to the accumulation of knowledge with experience; intelligence does not "crystallize" at any specific age.
9. Research on expertise indicates that during adulthood, intelligence
b. increases in specific areas of interest to the person.
10. Research indicates that during adulthood declines occur in
b. fluid intelligence
a,c,d: (crystallized intelligence & fluid) Crystallized intelligence typically INCREASES during adulthood.
11. Fluid intelligence is based on all the following :
d. general knowledge
this is an aspect of crystallized intelligence
12: In recent years, researchers are more likely than before to consider intelligence as
d. made up of several abilities.
a. (a single entity) contemporary researchers emphasize the different aspects of intelligence.
b&c: (primarily determined by heredity & entirely the product of learning) contemporary researchers see intelligence as the product of both heredity and learning.
13. Which of the following is a drawback of longitudinal studies of intelligence?
b. People who are retested my show improved performance as a result of practice.
a. (They are especially prone to the distortion of cohort effects) This is a drawback of cross-sectional research.
c. (The biases of the experimenter are more likely to distort the results than is true of other research methods) Longitudinal studies are no more sensitive to experiments bias than other research methods.
14. To a developmentalist, an expert is a person who
b. is significantly better at a task than people who have not put time and effort into performing that task.
15. One reason for variety in pattern to adult intelligence is that during adulthood
d. People develop specialized competencies in activities that are personally meaningful.
4. selective optimization with compensation
g. the tendency of adults to optimize certain aspects of their lives in order to offset declines in other areas.
5. general intelligence
b. Spearman's idea that intelligence is one basic trait, underlying all cognitive abilities.
8. Seattle Longitudinal Study
d. first study of adult intelligence that used a cross-sequential research design
10. Flynn effect
j. someone who is more skilled than the average person about personally meaningful activities
Key Terms: general intelligence (g)
is Spearman's idea that intelligence is one basic trait, underlying all cognitive abilities.
2. Seattle longitudinal Study
was the first study of adult intelligence that used a cross-sequental research design.
3. fluid intelligence
is made up of those basic mental abilities - abstract thinking, short-term memory, speed of thinking and the like-required for understanding any subject matter.
4. crystallized intelligence
is the accumulation of facts, information, and knowledge that comes with education and experience.
5. analytic intelligence
In Robert Sternberg's theory, analytic intelligence includes all the mental processes that foster academic proficiency by making efficient learning, remembering, and thinking possible.
6. creative intelligence
In Stermberg's theory, creative intelligence involves the capacity for flexible and innovating thinking.
7. practical intelligence
According to Sternberg, practical intelligence involves the capacity to adapt one' behavior to the demands of the situation. This type of intelligence includes the intellectual skills used in everyday problem solving.
8. selective optimization with compensation
Selective optimization with compensation is Paul and Margaret Baltes' theory describing the tendency of adults to select certain aspects of their lives to focus on, and optimize, to compensate for declines in other areas.
9. selective expert
A selective expert is someone who is notably more skilled and knowledgeable than the average person about which activities are personally meaningful.
10. automatic processing
Automatic processing is thinking that occurs without deliberate, conscious thought, as in the way experts process most tasks.