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644 repro L6
Terms in this set (29)
What were the 4 main concepts of the bidirectional relationship between periodontal health and diabetes
1.) Periodontal disease is common worldwide
2.) Diabetes and pre diabetes/hyperglycemia are common and increasing globally
3.) Periodontal disease & hyperglycemia (pre diabetes & poorly controlled diabetes) adversely affect each other
4.) NON-surgical periodontal treatment can improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes
What were the 3 main concepts of the relationship between Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontitis?
1. DM -> Periodontitis:
- Its poorly controlled diabetes (hyperglycemia) that's the problem
2.) Perio -> DM:
- INFLAMMATION PROMOTES HYPERGLYCEMIA, pre diabetes, type 2 diabetes
3.) Perio treatment --> improved glycemic level: treatment leads to HbA1c decrease
T/F: If you're diabetes is controlled then you're risk for perio is like anyone without diabetes
Based on the lecture, it seems like atherosclerosis, diabetes, heart dz, rheumatoid arthritis, and allergies are all related, why?
They are all the same thing: inflammatory reactions underlying these: they are all more or less due to inflammatory reactions
What are the NON modifiable risk factors for perio and diabetes?
1. Advanced Age
2. Male sex
3. NON-caucasian race/ethnicity
4. Low SES
5. Genes/family hx
What are the modifiable risk factors for perio and diabetes? (9)
3. Metabolic syndrome
4. Cigarette smoking
8. Added sugar
9. Poor nutrition
What is metabolic syndrome
*when you have at least 3 of these
1. Abdominal (visceral) obesity
5. Low HDL cholesterol
T/F: Obesity causes a CONSTANT LOW GRADE INFECTION - cause your neutrophils and macrophage are trying to eat up fat in there = around inflammatory cascade for acute attacks
(bad for body to be under constant attack by fat)
What's the difference between infection & inflammation?
Infection: something comes into body
Inflammation: what your body does as defense
T/F: One of the inflammatory reactions of the body during infection/obesity is to elevate sugar levels in blood to give energy to fight back
(Chronic inflammation as a response to infection/obesity will elevate the blood sugar - then its a short step to diabetes or pre diabetes: so oral cavity contributes to elevate blood sugar)
What percent of the US adults 30+ have periodontitis
47.2% ~ 50%
- mild: 8.7%
- moderate: 30%
- severe: 8.5%
What percent of seniors 65 yrs + have either moderate or severe periodontitis
2/3 = 66%
T/F: Prevalence of SEVERE periodontal disease increases with age
FALSE - prevalence of MODERATE perio dz increases with age
T/F: Periodontitis is very site specific
What are the 3 main ways periodontal infection causes problems
2. Inflammatory Response
3. Immune Response
What is a general marker of inflammation
What fraction of Americans are overweight or obese? How many times greater is overweight/obese risk of developing perio?
How to calculate BMI
Weight / (height)^2
What is a normal HbA1c?
Pre diabetes? manifest diabetes?
Normal: <= 5.6%
5.7-6.4% pre diabetes
>= 6.5% mainfest diabetes
What percent of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes? type 2? gestational?
Type 1: 5-10%
Type 2: 90-95%
How many people in US have manifest diabetes?
How many are diagnosed?
28.9 million = 12.3%
20.8 million = diagnosed
8.1 million = undiagnosed
How many people in US have pre-diabetes?
86 million ~ 40%
How many people overall in US have pre or manifest diabetes (so too much sugar in blood)
What is HbA1c actually a measure of
Glucose irreversibly bound to the hemoglobin in red blood cells, HbA
What is the key message to prevent diabetes complications? (what are the ABCs)
A1c: blood glucose control
B: blood pressure control
T/F: People with diabetes have fewer teeth
What are 2 diabetic neuropathy manifestations?
1. Burning mouth syndrome
What 5 things is periodontal disease a risk factor for
1. Poorer glycemic control in NON-DM
2. Incidence (new cases) of DM2
3. Worsening of glycemic control in DM2
4. DM2 complications
5. Gestational diabetes (GDM)
T/F: Neutrophils can metamorph, reach out and engulf bacteria
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