49 terms

minerals and rocks

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

4 questions to determine if something is a mineral
is it formed in nature
is it solid
is it non- living (inorganic) material
does it have a crystalline structure
has to have the same bonding structure throughout
atom
smallest part
has all of the properties of an element
compound
made up of two or more elements that have been bonded or chemically joined together an example is halite which is made up of sodium and chlorine
element
A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means
7 ways to identify minerals
color
streak
luster
cleavage
hardness
fracture
density
6 ways minerals form
crystallization
magma
lava
heat and pressure
weathering
erosion
three sedimentary rock structures
ripple marks
crossbeds
fossils
things that cause stratification in sedimentary rocks
wind and water
environmental factors that cause rock to undergo metamorphosis
heat and pressure and erosion
foliated metamorphic rock
foliated rock contains grains positioned by pressure
nonfoliated metamorphic rock
rock's grains aren't positioned by pressure.
Intrusive igneous rock
coarse grained texture and cooled beneath the earth's surface
Extrusive igneous rock and form when magma reaches the Earth's surface
fine grained texture
metamorphic
to change
3 geologic processes to form sediments
weathering and erosion or deposition
composition
the make-up of rocks
two conditions needed for metamorphic rock
heat and pressure
difference between coarse and fine grained
fine grained has a smooth texture and coarse granied has a rough texture with big grains
tempature magma cools at
700 - 1250 C
when magma tuches a rock and causes change
contact metamorphism
rocks in grand canyon show what
strata
less colored and less dense igneous rocks are known as what
felsic
what two steps finalize sedimentary rock cycle
cementation and compaction
three ways rocks can melt
heat, chemical change, and pressure release
minerals garnet is made out of
calcite, quartz, hematite
when animals at the bottom of the ocean cement together
Fossilferous limestone or organic sedimentary rock
three types of rocks
igneous,sedimentary,metamorphic
when lava cools quickly...
fine grained
when lava cools slowly...
coarse grained
layers in sedimentary rock
strata
continous pattern of rocks changing from one type to another
rock cycle
difference between lava and magma
lava is outside of earth's crust
organic sedimentary rock
living
dense rocks that are dark
mafic
when a metamorphic rock forms under pressure beneath earth's surface it is called...
regional metamorphanism
dike
cuts vertically through rock layers
sill
cuts horizantally through rock layers
metamorphism occurs at what tempartures
50 - 1000 C
sandstone and siltstone are examples of which rock
clastic sedimentary
What would cause fossils from the sea to be found at the top of a mountain?
Tectonic plates building mountains where sea was before.
what are the long cracks that lava sometimes erupts from
fissures
What % of limestone is calcite?
95%
human uses for rocks
buildings, weapons, statues
igneous rock
formed by heating and cooling of magma
metamorphic rock
formed by physical or chemical change by heat and pressure
sedimentary rock
formed by weathering and erosion of sediments
clastic sedimentary rocks
formed by weathering examples: siltstone and sandstone
organic sedimentary rocks
formed in the ocean when living sea creatures like shells compact and cement together also plants and debris example: shells
chemical sedimentary rocks
form when dissolved materials precipitate from solution. examples:dolomites and limestones