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Fossil Fuels and Nuclear Power Exam 5
Terms in this set (17)
Approximately what percentage of world's power comes from wind, solar photovoltaic, and fossil fuels.
Fossil fuels: 85%
Describe how oil, coal, and natural gas are formed
They are made of ancient plants and animals and they are trapped in rock formations
Describe how crude oil is refined
Oil refinery. An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas.
Identify: which countries use most oil, which countries have largest oil reserves
United States and China and United States
Sketch a graph of US oil production for past 50 years
Describe what OPEC is, and how it affects oil prices.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a cartel that controls prices by controlling production. OPEC's mission is to maximize profits
Describe what "peak oil" is, and what we know about it.
the hypothetical point in time when the global production of oil reaches its maximum rate, after which production will gradually decline.
Describe CAFE standards.
Corporate Average Fuel EfficiencyGovernment requirement that auto manufacturers' average fuel efficiency be above certain minimum.
Describe how electricity is generated (see textbook)
Water is heated to produce steam. Steam turns a turbine(which is similar to a windmill) Electricity flows to homes
Identify the largest source of US electricity, and know approximately how much it produces
90% of U.S. coal is used to produce electricity
Define an external cost and give examples.
A cost paid for by someone without their choice. There are lots of costs to owning a pet (food, vet bills, etc). But if you don't pick up your dog's poop; that cost is "paid" by someone else. It is an "external" cost.
Distinguish the difference between nuclear reactions, chemical reactions, and physical changes
Nuclear reactions: Atoms changed from one element to another or to energy
Chemical reactions: Atoms rearranged No change to atomsE.g. Burning wood, rusting metal
Physical changes: Molecules moved aroundNo change to atoms or moleculesE.g. Crushing a can, water evaporating
Describe how a nuclear power plant works, and compare/contrast it to coal power plants
Nuclear power plants use nuclear reactions to boil water and it is similar to coal power plants because it boils as well
Describe the potential benefits of nuclear power
Low Pollution: Doesn't produce mercury, acid rain, CO2 Low operation costs and more proficient than fossil fuels
Describe the main risks associated with nuclear power
- Exposure to radiation
- Nuclear meltdown: Reactors are cooled (e.g. with water) so they don't get too hot. If coolant leaks, nuclear reactions produce lots of heat.Fuel rods melt.Radiation leaks into water, steam, can escape.
- Radioactive waste
Describe how the US stores nuclear waste and the role that Yucca Mountain may play in the future
- The United States currently does not have a long-term repository for nuclear waste
- Yucca Mountain, NV was proposed to be the United States' long-term disposal site
Not in my back-yard
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