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Sheets of tightly packed cells that line organs and body cavities as well as external surfaces
Simple squamous Epithelium
is a single layer of flat cells. This type of epithelium is often permeable and occurs where small molecules pass quickly through membranes via filtration or diffusion.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basement membrane. This type of epithelium is well suited to areas in the body subject to constant abrasion, as it is the thickest and layers can be sequentially sloughed off and replaced
Loose Connective Tissue
It holds organs in place and attaches epithelial tissue to other underlying tissues. Contains collagen
Countercurrent Heat Exchange
The exchange of a substance or heat between two fluids flowing in opposite directions. For example, blood in a fish gill flows in the opposite direction of water passing over the gill, maximinzing diffusion of oxygen into and carbon dioxide out of the blood.
A finger like projection of the inner surface of the small intestine. Large number of these increase the surface area of an organ
One of many fine, finger like projections of the epithelial cells in the lumen of the small intestine that increase its surface area.
These typically include sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, stomach, liver, pancreas
A mixture of substances that is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder, enables formation of fat droplets in water as an aid in the digestion and absorption of fats.
Secreted by the pancreas and goes into the small intestine to neutralize the acidic environment. Secretin is the hormone that stimulates this secretion.
These are enzymes produced by the pancreas and secreted into the small intestine. CCK is the hormone that stimulates this.
This comes from the small intestine and goes to the gall bladder to stimulate the secretion of bile.
This is the study of how Herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores have different forms of teeth.
A circulatory system consisting of a single pump and circuit, in which blood passes from the sites of gas exchange to the rest of the body before returning to the heart.
A circulatory system consisting of separate pulmonary and systemic circuits, in which blood passes through the heart after completing each circuit.
The branch of the circulatory system that supplies oxygenated blood to and carries deoxygenated blood away from organs and tissues throughout the body.
A heart valve located between each atrium and ventricle that prevents a backflow of blood when the ventricle contracts.
A valve located at each exit of the heart where the aorta leaves the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle.
A colorless fluid containing white blood cells, which bathes the tissues and drains through the lymphatic system into the bloodstream.
A pinched off cytoplasmic fragment of a specialized bone marrow cell. Circulate in blood and helps with blood clotting.
Stimulates the production of erythrocytes. It is secreted by the kidney when body tissues do not receive enough oxygen.
Low Density Lipoprotein
This transports cholesterol from the liver for incorporation into cell membranes.
This is a bony or cartilaginous support to which gill filaments and gill rakers are attached.
Insect Tracheal System
Rigid air tubes that branch throughout the body. The tracheoles reach every cell in the body. Circulatory system not involved.
Entails one way ventilation. Requires an 2 complete sets of inhalation and exhalation for one molecule of air to go through the entire body. 2 air sacs are involved.
A form of defense common to all animals that is active immediately upon exposure to pathogens and that is the same whether or not the pathogen has been encountered previously. lysozyme, phagocytic cells, lysosome
Natural Killer Cells
A type of white blood cell that can kill tumor cells and virus infected cells as part of innate immunity.
A vertebrate body cell that produces histamine and other molecules that trigger inflammation in response to infection in allergic reactions.
This is mediated by B lymphocytes (b cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells). Specificity, memory, and self-nonself recognition.
These include both effector cells for the cell mediated immune response and helper cells required for both branches of adaptive immunity.
Antigen presenting cell
A cell that upon ingesting pathogens generates peptide fragments that are bound by class II MHC molecules and then displayed on the surface for T cells.
Cytotoxic T Cell
When activated, kills infected cells as well as certain cancer cells. Voluntary sacrifice occurs.
Helper T Cell
Secretes cytokines that promote the response of B Cells and cytotoxic T cells to antigens. Activates the other two lymphocytes so that they can respond to the antigen.
Secondary Immune Response
This response is faster, greater, and longer than primary immune response.
An animal that is isosmotic with its environment. i.e. sharks and marine invertebrates
An animal that controls its internal osmolarity independent of the external environment. i.e. bony fish, and fish in freshwater
The extraction of water and small solutes, including metabolic wastes from the body fluid.
Organ in insects that empties into the digestive tract, removes nitrogenous wastes from the hemolymph. superb water retention
Parasympathetic Division of ANS
Rest and digest. Heart is slowed with acetylcholine. Digestion occurs.
Pass information from presynaptic cell to postsynaptic synapse. Binds to ligand gated ion channels.
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