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Interstitial fluid

The fluid filling the spaces between cells in most animals

Epithelial Tissue

Sheets of tightly packed cells that line organs and body cavities as well as external surfaces

Simple squamous Epithelium

is a single layer of flat cells. This type of epithelium is often permeable and occurs where small molecules pass quickly through membranes via filtration or diffusion.

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basement membrane. This type of epithelium is well suited to areas in the body subject to constant abrasion, as it is the thickest and layers can be sequentially sloughed off and replaced

Loose Connective Tissue

It holds organs in place and attaches epithelial tissue to other underlying tissues. Contains collagen

Countercurrent Heat Exchange

The exchange of a substance or heat between two fluids flowing in opposite directions. For example, blood in a fish gill flows in the opposite direction of water passing over the gill, maximinzing diffusion of oxygen into and carbon dioxide out of the blood.

Whole Body BMR

Elephants require much more energy than a mouse when comparing the entire organism.

Mass-Specific BMR

Mice require much more energy than an elephant when comparing individual cells.

Substrate feeder

An animal that lives in or on its food source, eating its way through the food

Fluid feeder

An animal that lives by sucking nutrient rich fluids from another living organism.

Bulk feeder

An animal that eats relatively large pieces of food.


A finger like projection of the inner surface of the small intestine. Large number of these increase the surface area of an organ


One of many fine, finger like projections of the epithelial cells in the lumen of the small intestine that increase its surface area.

Exocrine glands

These typically include sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, stomach, liver, pancreas


A mixture of substances that is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder, enables formation of fat droplets in water as an aid in the digestion and absorption of fats.


Secreted by the pancreas and goes into the small intestine to neutralize the acidic environment. Secretin is the hormone that stimulates this secretion.


These are enzymes produced by the pancreas and secreted into the small intestine. CCK is the hormone that stimulates this.


This is produced by the stomach and is used to stimulate the secretion of gastric juices.


This comes from the small intestine and goes to the gall bladder to stimulate the secretion of bile.


Comes from the small intestine and stimulates the secretion of bicarbonate.


Regulates appetite and is found in the stomach wall.


Regulates appetite and is found in adipose tissue.

Peptide YY

Regulates appetite and is found in the small intestine.


This is the study of how Herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores have different forms of teeth.

Single Circulation

A circulatory system consisting of a single pump and circuit, in which blood passes from the sites of gas exchange to the rest of the body before returning to the heart.

Double Circulation

A circulatory system consisting of separate pulmonary and systemic circuits, in which blood passes through the heart after completing each circuit.

Pulmonary Circuit

The branch of the circulatory system that supplies the lungs.

Systemic circuit

The branch of the circulatory system that supplies oxygenated blood to and carries deoxygenated blood away from organs and tissues throughout the body.

Atrioventricular valve

A heart valve located between each atrium and ventricle that prevents a backflow of blood when the ventricle contracts.

Semilunar valve

A valve located at each exit of the heart where the aorta leaves the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle.


Works as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the heart.

Systolic Pressure

Blood pressure in the arteries during contraction of the ventricles.

Diastolic Pressure

Blood pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are relaxed.


A colorless fluid containing white blood cells, which bathes the tissues and drains through the lymphatic system into the bloodstream.


A blood cell that functions in fighting infections, also called a white blood cell


A pinched off cytoplasmic fragment of a specialized bone marrow cell. Circulate in blood and helps with blood clotting.


Stimulates the production of erythrocytes. It is secreted by the kidney when body tissues do not receive enough oxygen.

Low Density Lipoprotein

This transports cholesterol from the liver for incorporation into cell membranes.

Gill Arch

This is a bony or cartilaginous support to which gill filaments and gill rakers are attached.

Gill Filaments

Oxygen exchange occurs here in fish


A thin scale, plate, or layer of bone or tissue, as in the gills of fish

Insect Tracheal System

Rigid air tubes that branch throughout the body. The tracheoles reach every cell in the body. Circulatory system not involved.


One of a pair of breathing tubes that branch from the trachea to the lungs.


A fine branch of the bronchi that transports air to alveoli.


Mucus Escalator


Relaxation of the intercostals and diaphragm relaxes

Bird Lung

Entails one way ventilation. Requires an 2 complete sets of inhalation and exhalation for one molecule of air to go through the entire body. 2 air sacs are involved.

Dissociation Curve for Hb

Even a slight change in PO2 causes Hb to unload or load.

Carbonic Acid

Product of cellular respiration and leads to the Bohr Shift

Innate Immunity

A form of defense common to all animals that is active immediately upon exposure to pathogens and that is the same whether or not the pathogen has been encountered previously. lysozyme, phagocytic cells, lysosome

Natural Killer Cells

A type of white blood cell that can kill tumor cells and virus infected cells as part of innate immunity.


This is used to detect molecules in bacteria and eventually destroy them


Secreted by T cells and helps activate macrophages.

Mast Cells

A vertebrate body cell that produces histamine and other molecules that trigger inflammation in response to infection in allergic reactions.

Adaptive Immunity

This is mediated by B lymphocytes (b cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells). Specificity, memory, and self-nonself recognition.


Two main classes are B cells and T cells.

B Cell

Utilized in the humoral immune response and are Plasma cells when they have been activated.

T Cell

These include both effector cells for the cell mediated immune response and helper cells required for both branches of adaptive immunity.


A substance that elicits an immune response from B and/or T cells.

Antigen presenting cell

A cell that upon ingesting pathogens generates peptide fragments that are bound by class II MHC molecules and then displayed on the surface for T cells.


antigens are bound by antibody or complement molecules

Cytotoxic T Cell

When activated, kills infected cells as well as certain cancer cells. Voluntary sacrifice occurs.

Helper T Cell

Secretes cytokines that promote the response of B Cells and cytotoxic T cells to antigens. Activates the other two lymphocytes so that they can respond to the antigen.

Secondary Immune Response

This response is faster, greater, and longer than primary immune response.


An animal that is isosmotic with its environment. i.e. sharks and marine invertebrates


An animal that controls its internal osmolarity independent of the external environment. i.e. bony fish, and fish in freshwater


sharks use this protein to regulate their osmotic balance.

Chloride Cells

Bony fish will secrete this across their gills to regulate their osmolarity.


no energy needed to make, low N amount, high toxicity, found in bony fish.

Uric Acid

high energy needed to make, high amount of N, low toxicity, found in birds and reptiles


The extraction of water and small solutes, including metabolic wastes from the body fluid.

Malphigian Tubules

Organ in insects that empties into the digestive tract, removes nitrogenous wastes from the hemolymph. superb water retention

Proximal Tubule

In this section Sodium is actively pumped out and H2O and Cl follows.

Descending Loop of Henle

In this section H2O is reabsorbed through aquaporins.

Ascending Loop of Henle

In this section NaCl is reabsorbed through passive and active transport


This is used when there is a decrease in blood pressure and volume.


This increases aquaporins in the collecting duct when the body is in need of retaining water.


Found in the CNS, used to analyze and interpret signals.


When a signal only goes to the spinal cord and a motor response is performed.

Parasympathetic Division of ANS

Rest and digest. Heart is slowed with acetylcholine. Digestion occurs.

Enteric Division of ANS

Active in digestive tract. Secretion and peristalsis.


Pass information from presynaptic cell to postsynaptic synapse. Binds to ligand gated ion channels.

Ungated Ion Channel

There are many K and few Na of these that allow passive membrane passage.

Gated Ion Channel

These open and close in response to a stimulus

Voltage Gated Ion Channel

Plays a significant role in the depolarization of the membrane.

Sodium Potassium Pump

Largely responsible for the neuron getting back to resting potential.

Saltatory Conduction

This is the jumping of action potentials between nodes

Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential

Depolarizing current

Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential

Hyperpolarizing current

Temporal Summation

Two EPSP's in one synapse in rapid succession

Spatial Summation

EPSP's produced simultaneously by DIFFERENT synapses

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