Pre-AP Biology Chapter 4
Terms in this set (53)
Who coined the term cells?
Who was the first person to observe living cells?
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Who said animals are composed of cells?
Theodor Schwann (
swan - animal
What are three parts of the cell theory?
1. All living things are made of cells
2. Cells are the smallest unit of life
3. Cells come from pre-existing cells
How does surface area and volume relate to cells?
As a cell grows, its volume increases by a cubed amount; therefore, food and waste need to also. As a cell grows, it's surface membrane grows by a squared amount-so does the cells ability to bring in food or get rid of waste
What are the characteristics of a prokaryotic cell?
1. No nucleus
2. No membrane-bound organelles
3. Found in domains Archaea and Bacteria
What are the two domains of prokaryotic cells?
Archaea and Bacteria
What are the characteristics of eukaryotic cells?
1. Has a nucleus
2. Has membrane-bound organelles
Group of cells
Group of tissue
What is the plasma (cell) membrane composed of?
Why is cholesterol important in the plasma membrane?
Cholesterol molecules are scattered among the phospholipids and they serve to keep them spaced out and thereby controlling fluidity - helps to protect from cell from freezing
How would you describe the fatty acid tails of a phospholipid? Hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
The fatty acids of this molecule are nonpolar and hydrophobic
What is a glycoprotein?
A.K.A. Recognition proteins - used for cell identification
What is a receptor protein?
Proteins that send a message into the cell - change shape when the hormone attaches
What is a transport protein?
Allows specific molecules to pass in and out of the cell
What is the nucleoplasm?
Fluid in nucleus
What does the nucleus do?
Stores and protects DNA
Where are ribosomes made?
What do mitochondria do?
Build ATP from glucose for the whole cell
Which organelle has a double membrane surrounding it?
What are the inner membranes of mitochondria called and what do they do?
Cristae *Greatly increase surface area
How do mitochondria reproduce?
Mitochondria are not created by the cell but reproduce themselves by asexual reproduction - division
Which organelles have their own DNA?
which organelles are the smallest?
Which organelle makes proteins and doesn't have a membrane?
Which organelle functions as an intracellular highway?
What are the membranous tubes and sacs called in the ER and Golgi apparatus?
What do cisternae do?
The tube has tiny pores in it that are docking sites for the ribosomes to attach and make proteins to export
What is the site of protein synthesis for proteins that are to be exported out of the cell?
In what types of cells would you find the most abundant amounts of rough ER?
What does the smooth ER do?
Detoxifies harmful compounds that enter the cell
What does the Golgi apparatus do?
Makes final modifications to molecules being shipped out of the cell then packages those molecules into a tiny membrane bubble called a vesicle
What are vesicles?
Tiny membrane bubbles located in the Golgi apparatus that move through the cell membrane and fuse with it; dumping the contents to the cell exterior
Lysosomes have four functions -what are they?
1. Cellular digestion
2. Recycling worn out organelles
3. Recycle the entire cell (autolysis)
4. Can be used in embryonic development - timing mechanism
What is the digestion of damaged or extra cells by their own lysosomes called?
Where are peroxisomes most abundant?
What do peroxisomes do?
Detoxify alcohol and other drugs
What type of vesicle is found in the seeds of plants and is used to break down fats for the embryo?
What is the cytoskeleton? What does it do?
The cytoskeleton is a network of protein fibers that criss cross within a cell. Moves chromosomes
Describe the structure of a microfilament
What are short hairlike structures that may be present in large numbers on the outside of the cell?
Describe the structure of cilia and flagella
Cilia: many short hairs that are present in large numbers
Flagella: arranged in 9 pairs surrounding two individuals; 9 + 2 arrangement
Describe the structure, function, and location of centrioles
Structure: T shape
Function: Builds microtubules
Location: Animal cells
What are the three structures found in a plant cell but not in an animal cell?
1. Cell wall
What is the cell wall and what is it composed of?
Rigid structure outside the cell membrane that helps support the cell - Cellulose
What does the central vacuole do?
What stores the colorful pigments found in plants?
What does a chloroplast do?
What are thylakoids?
Flat discs inside the chloroplast
Which organelles are part of the theory of endosymbiosis ?What are some major proving points?
Mitochondria and chloroplasts
- may have existed many years ago as an independent cell
Which organelle stores starch?
What are the major differences between a eukaryotic cell and a prokaryotic cell?
-No membrane bound organelles
-Found in domains archaea and bacteria
- Single loop of DNA
Eukaryotes: first 2 are opposite
- found in domain Eukarya
-Multiple strips of DNA