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Comm in Society 1100 Final Exam
Terms in this set (74)
Level of television watching/Beliefs about the world.
Theory About Television
TV as "society's institutional storyteller"
TV is an agent of socialization - competes with other socializing agents (e.g., family, church, school)
TV depicts the world a certain way
The values presented in TV programs often run counter to the values presented by other socialization agents
Mean World Syndrome
The world presented on TV is violent—much more violent than in the real world.
Heavy TV viewers will encounter this violence and adopt a mindset that the world is more violent than it actually is
This effect is enhanced if heavy TV viewing is combined with limited interaction in the real world (e.g., those who are more aged get out less, but watch more TV
Participants are placed into groups according to how much TV they watch
Difference between heavy and light TV viewers
Over time, heavy TV viewers begin to adopt a similar view of the world.
This worldview focuses on a need for safety and security
Can impact a range of socio-political orientations
Cultivation effects are greater when what you see on TV is similar to what you see in the real world
Ratings do little to protect children from violence
Ratings are assigned by the industry
Agenda Setting Theory
Idea that the news media determine the issues the public thinks about and talks about.
Theory reaffirmed the power of the press, while still maintaining that individuals were free to choose
Types of Agendas
Factors Affecting Influence of Media on the Public Agenda
Need for orientation (or index of curiosity
People value a certain gain more than a probable gain with an equal (or even greater) expected value; the opposite is true for losses.
Proposed by Tversky and Kahneman
How information is presented to to others
Communication Accomodation Theory
People are often like communication chameleons.
When we talk with other people, we will tend to subconsciously change our style of speech (accent, rate, types of words, etc.) towards the style used by the listener.
A strategy of adapting your communication behavior so that it becomes similar to another person's
he strategy of accentuating the differences between your communication behavior and another person's
Social Identity Theory
A person's sense of who they are based on their group memberships
The groups we belong to are an important source of pride and self-esteem.
To increase our self-image, we enhance the status of the groups we belong to
Groups that we identify with.
Groups that we do not identify with
Respect, dignity, prestige, honor, and reputation
Helps explain cultural differences in responses to conflict.
The various facets of individual and cultural identities are described as faces.
Process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group
refers to an individual's sense of self in relation to others. There are two types of self-construal: Independent and interdependent.
Three Types of Face Concern
Mutual-face maintenance (self and other)
Obliging (Conflict Management Style)
Accommodating or giving in to the wishes of another in a conflict situation
Compromising (Conflict Management Style)
A give and take strategy that involves negotiating and seeking a middle way
Avoiding (Conflict Management Style)
Responding to a conflict by withdrawing from open discussion
Integrating (Conflict Management Style)
Problem solving through open discussion; collaborating for a win-win resolution of conflict
People belonging to low-power groups who must change their language when communicating publicly
due to lack of power that besets any group occupying the low end of the totem pole.
Editors and other arbiters of culture who determine what books, essays, poems, plays, film scripts, etc. will appear in the mass media
The pattern of news coverage across major print and broadcast media, as measured by the prominence and length of stories.
The most important public issues, as measured by public opinion surveys.
The issues policy makers are paying serious attention to at any given time
Communicator's predisposition to focus on either their individual identity or group identity during a conversation.
Goals of the individual take precedence over the goals of the group.
Tend to be economically richer.
Individuals are responsible for themselves and perhaps their immediate families
Stronger desire to stay with extended family.
Success is measured by one's contributions to the group as a whole.
View the self as stable and separate from interpersonal context
Value self-promotion, autonomy, assertiveness, and uniqueness
Tend to come from individualistic cultures
View the self as more flexible and intertwined with the social context
Value maintaining group harmony and fitting in
Tend to come from collectivist cultures
Obliging. Compromising. Avoiding. Integrating
Types of conflict management styles
Muted Group Theory
Mutedness is due to lack of power that besets any group occupying the low end of the totem pole.
Muted does no mean the group is completely silent, they just can't say what they want to say when and where they want to say it.
Muted groups must change their language when communicating in public, and thus cannot fully share their true thoughts.
Muted Group Theory/Men's dominant position in society
Men's dominant position in society limits women's access to communication in public spheres.
Women speak often in the home ("small world") but not in public ("large world").
As a result, women are often overlooked, muffled, and rendered invisible—"mere black holes in someone else's universe."
The Masculine Power
to Name Experience
Men and women are not on an even playing field.
There is a vast vocabulary to disparage females talking
There are over 200 terms used to describe female sexual promiscuity but only 22 for males
Men as the Gatekeepers
There is a "good-ole-boys" establishment of gatekeepers that excludes women.
Men control the public record.
Women were locked out of the publishing business for 500 years.
Kramarae calls traditional mainstream mass media "malestream expression"
Speaking out in private
Women find alternative ways to express themselves outside the public sphere—called back channels (e.g. diaries, poetry, Pinterest).
Women rely on nonverbal forms of expression more because they are verbally muted.
Sexual acts involving penetration of the body; acts that do not involve penetration are called sexual assault (or coercion).
A woman who goes to the home or apartment of a man on their first date implies that she is willing to have sex.
Any health woman can successfully resist a rapist if she really wants to.
In the majority of rapes, the victim is promiscuous or has a bad reputation.
If a man is drunk, he might rape someone unintentionally.
Rape accusations are often used as a way of getting back at guys.
A-ffect B-ehavior C-ognition
ABCs of Disliking Others
Negative attitude or feeling toward people simply because of their membership in certain groups
Unequal treatment of different people based on the groups or categories to which they belong.
Beliefs that associate groups of people with certain traits.
Process of sorting people on the basis of common attributes (e.g., gender, ethnic background, age, religion, sexual orientation, weight).
Outgroup Homogeneity Bias
The tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among outgroup members than among ingroup members (e.g., "they all look alike")
People overestimate the link between variables that are related only slightly or not at all.
Ultimate Attribution Error
When the error involves making an internal attribution about whole groups of people instead of specific individuals
Media Depictions of Minorities
Only Blacks are represented in proportion to their population.
Under-representation of other groups
Said media acts as a mediator between world outside and pictures in our head
S Shaped Curve
can be obtained simply by adding up the probabilities from a bell-shaped curve
Bell Shaped Curve
many phenomena cluster around an average value and form
Noticed by Abraham de Moivre
Diffusion and Adoption Process
An individual (or other decision-making unit) is exposed to an innovation's existence and gains some understanding of how it functions.
An individual (or other decision-making unit) forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation.
An individual (or other decision-making unit) engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation.
An individual (or other decision-making unit) puts an innovation into use.
An individual (or other decision-making unit) seeks reinforcement of an innovation-decision already made, or reverses a previous decision to adopt or reject the innovation if exposed to conflicting messages about the innovation.
Axis that is time
Last to adopt an innovation.
Adopt only when certain the technology will not fail, or when forced to adopt.
Traditional — don't see a need to change.
Tied to the past — reluctant to try new things.
Suspicious of innovations.
Innovation-decision process is lengthy.
Lowest social status and oldest group.
First individuals to adopt an innovation.
Risk takers who are willing to try an unproven product.
Youngest in age and highest in social class. Also very social.
Have financial resources to absorb unprofitable innovations.
More cautious in adopting than innovators.
Seek greater knowledge of innovations.
Visionaries who are respected for their willingness to try new innovations.
Educated opinion leaders.
Realize that adopting the right innovations will help them maintain a central communication position.
Tend to be younger and have a higher social class.
Their time of adoption is significantly longer than for innovators and early adopters.
Prefer to deliberate before making a decision.
Careful consumers who tend to avoid risk.
Rely on recommendations from others who have experience with the product.
They make an innovation legitimate.
Skeptical, conservative, and cautious about innovations — even after others have embraced them.
Wait until the rest of the community has adopted it first.
Below average social status, and little contact very little opinion leadership.
Peer pressure may be a motivation for adopting an innovation.
Innovation Adoption Curve
Starts with an innovator.
Spreads slowly at first, then picks up speed.
When the number of adopters reaches a critical mass (5% - 15%), the process takes off and is probably irreversible.
As more and more people talk about the innovation, it has a life of its own.
Eventually it reaches a saturation level, where virtually everyone who is going to adopt the innovation has done so.
Outgroup homogenity bias
How are stereotypes formed?
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