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carbohydrate vocab

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Amylases
Enzyme released from the salivary glands that digests starch by hydrolyzing glycosiidic bonds
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Enzymes that are produced by enterocytes that aid in the final steps of digestion
Carbohydrate
organic compound made up of varying numbers of monosaccharides
Complex carbohydrate
category of carbohydrate that includes oilosaccharides and polysaccharides
Disaccharide
Carbohydrates consisting of 2 monosaccharides bonded together
Duodenum
first segment of the small intestine
Enzyme
assist with the making and breaking of bonds in biological molecules
Fiber
Polysaccharide found in plants that is not digested or absorbed in the human small intestine
Glucagon
Hormone secreted by the pancreatic alpha cells in response to decreased blood glucose
Glucose
A 6-carbon monosaccharide produced in plants by photosynthesis
Glycogen
Polysaccharide consisting of highly branched arrangement of glucose molecules found primarily in liver and skeletal muscle
Hormone
Substances released from glands or cells in response to various stimuli that exert their effect by binding to receptors on specific tissues
Insulin
Hormone secreted by the pancreatic beta cells in response to increased blood glucose
Insulin resistance
Condition characterized by the inability of insulin receptors torespond to the hormone insulin
Lactase
Intestinal enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose into glucose and galactose
Lactose
Disaccharide consisting of glucose and galactose; produced by mammary glands
Monosaccharide
Carbohydrate consisting of a single sugar
Photosynthesis
process whereby plants trap energy from the sun to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water
Polysaccharide
complex carbohydrate made of many monosaccharides
Simple carbohydrate
Category of carbohydrates consisting of mono- or disaccharides
Starch
Goes under category of polysaccharide which is a complex carbohydrate
Sucrase
Intestinal enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose into glucose and fructose
Sucrose
Disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose; found primarily in fruits and vegetables
Type 1 diabetes
Previously known as juvenile-onset diabetes and as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, this form of diabetes results when the pancreas is no longer able to produce insulin due to loss of insulin-producing beta-cells of the pancreas
Type 2 diabetes
Previously known as adult onset diabetes and as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, this form of diabetes results when insulin-requiring cells have difficulty responding to insulin in a normal way
sucrose, lactose, maltose
disaccharides
galactose, glucose, fructose
monosaccharides
salivary amylase
shorter chains
pancreatic amylases
disaccharides
pancreas
organ for regulating blood glucose levels
insulin and glucagen
hormones for regulating blood glucose levels
130 gm/day
minimum intake of carbohydrates
high in fiber, low in added sugar
dietary guidelines recommend diet with complex carbohydrates of
helps control weight, reduces spikes in blood glucose, reduces blood cholesterol, reduces risk heart disease, healthy gi tract, reduces risk colon cancer
what fiber does