How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

141 terms

Chapter 11: Digestive System

Exploring Medical Language Chapter 11
STUDY
PLAY
Mouth
Opening through which food passes into the body; breaks food into small particles by mastication and mixing with saliva
Tongue
Consists mostly of skeletal muscle; attached in the posterior region of the mouth. It provides movement of food for mastication, directs food to the pharynx for swallowing, and is the major organ for taste ans speech.
Palate
Separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
Soft Palate
Posterior portion of the palate, not supported by the bone
Hard Palate
Anterior portion of palate, supported by the bone
Uvula
Soft V-shaped mass that extends from the soft palate; directs food into the throat
Pharynx, throat
Performs the swallowing action that passes food from the mouth into the esophagus
Esophagus
10-inch tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach
Stomach
J-shaped sac that mixes and stores food. It secretes chemicals for digestion and hormones for local communication control.
Cardia
Area around the opening of the esophagus
Fundus
Uppermost domed portion of the stomach
Body
Central portion of the stomach
Antrum
Lower portion of the stomach
Pylorus
Portion of the stomach that connects to the small intestine
Pyloric Sphincter
Ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the duodenum
Small Intestine
20-foot canal extending from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine
Duodenum
First 10 to 12 inches of the small intestine
Jejunum
Second portion of the small intestine, approximately 8 feet long
Ileium
Third portion of the small intestine, approximately 11 feet long, which connects with the large intestine
Large Intestine
Canal that is approximately 5 feet long and extends from the ileum to the anus
Cecum
Blind u-shaped pouch that is the first portion of the large intestine
Colon
Second portion of the large intestine. It is divided into four parts: Ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid
Rectum
Last portion of the large intestine, approximately 8 to 10 inches long, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus
Anus
Sphincter muscle (ringlike band of muscle fiber that keeps an opening tight) at the end of the digestive tract
Salivary Glands
Produce saliva, which flows into the mouth
Liver
Produces bile, which is necessary for the digestion of fats. It performs many other functions concerned with digestion and metabolism.
Bile Ducts
Passageways that carry bile
Hepatic Duct
Passageway for bile from the liver
Cystic Duct
Carries bile from the gallbladder
Common Bile Duct
Conversion of the hepatic duct and cystic duct forms this which conveys bile to the duodenum
Biliary Tract
Hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct are referred to as this
Gallbladder
Small, saclike structure that stores bile
Pancreas
Produces pancreatic juice, which helps digest all types of food and secretes insulin for carbohydrate metabolism
Peritoneum
Serous saclike lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Appendix
Small pouch, which has no function in digestion, attached to the cecum. AKA vermiform appendix
Abdomen
Portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis
An/o
Anus (combining form)
Antr/o
Antrum (combining form)
Cec/o
Cecum (combining form)
Col/o
Colon/o
Colon (combining form) Usually denoting the large intestine
Duoden/o
Duodenum (combining form)
Enter/o
Intestine (combining form) Usually denoting the small intestine
Esophag/o
Esophagus (combining form)
Gastr/o
Stomach (combining form)
Ile/o
Ileum (combining form)
Jejun/o
Jejunum (combining form)
Or/o
Stomat/o
Mouth (combining form)
Proct/o
Rect/o
Rectum (combining form)
Sigmoid/o
Sigmoid Colon (combining form)
Abdomin/o
Celi/o
Lapar/o
Abdomen (abdominal cavity) (combining form)
Appendic/o
Appendix (combining form)
Cheil/o
Lip (combining form)
Cholangi/o
Bile duct (combining form)
Chol/e
Gall, bile (combining form)
Choledoch/o
Common bile duct (combining form)
Diverticul/o
Diverticulum, or blind pouch, extending from a hollow organ (combining form)
Gingiv/o
Gum (combining form)
Gloss/o
Lingu/o
Tongue (combining form)
Hapat/o
Liver (combining form)
Herni/o
Hernia, or protrusion of an organ through a membrane or cavity wall (combining form)
Palat/o
Palate (combining form)
Pancreat/o
Pancreas (combining form)
Peritone/o
Peritoneum (combining form)
Polyp/o
Polyp, small growth (combining form)
Pylor/o
Pylorus, pyloric sphincter (combining form)
Sial/o
Saliva, salivary gland (combining form)
Steat/o
Fat (combining form)
Uvul/o
Uvula (combining form)
Hemi-
Half
-pepsia
Digestion
Appendicitis
Inflammation of the appendix
Cholangioma
Tumor of the bile duct
Cholecystitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder
Choledocholithiasis
Condition of stones in the common bile duct
Cholelithiasis
Condition of gallstones
Diverticulitis
Inflammation of the diverticulum
Diverticulosis
Abnormal condition of having diverticula
Esophagitis
Inflammation of the esophagus
Gastritis
Inflammation of the stomach
Gastroenteritis
Inflammation of the stomach and intestines
Gastroenterocolitis
Inflammation of the stomach, intestines, and colon
Gingivitis
Inflammation of the gums
Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver
Hepatoma
Tumor of the liver
Palatitis
Inflammation of the palate
Pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas
Peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum
Polyposis
Abnormal condition of (multiple) polyps (in the mucous membrane of the intestine, especially the colon; high potential for malignancy)
Proctoptosis
Prolapse of the rectum
Rectocele
Protusion of the rectum
Sialolith
Stone in the salivary gland
Steatohepatitis
Inflammation of the liver associated with (excess) fat; (often caused by alcohol abuse and over time may cause cirrhosis)
Uvulitis
Inflammation of the uvula
Adhesion
Abnormal growing together of two surfaces that normally are sepereated. This may occur after abdominal surgery
Adhesiolysis
Adhesiotomy
Surgical treatment for adhesion. (2 terms)
Anorexia Nervosa
Eating disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea in females,and abnormal fear of becoming obese. It occurs primarily in adolescents and young adults.
Bulimia Nervosa
An eating disorder involving gorging with food, followed by induced vomiting of laxative abuse (binging and purgint)
Cirrhosis
Chronic disease of the liver with gradual destruction of cells and formation of scar tissue; commonly caused by alcoholism.
Crohn Disease
Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract usually affecting the ileum and characterized by cobblestone ulcerations and the formation of scar tissue that may lead to intestinal obstruction (also called regional ileitis or regional enteritis)
Duodenal Ulcer
Ulcer in the duodenum
Gastric Ulcer
Ulcer in the stomach
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
The abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus, causing heartburn and the gradual breakdown of the mucous barrier of the esophagus
Hemochromatosis
An iron metabolism disorder that occurs when too much iron is absorbed from food, resulting in excessive deposits of iron in the tissue; can cause congestive heart failure, diabetes, cirrhosis, or cancer of the liver.
Hemorrhoid
Varicose vein in the rectal area, which may be internal or external
Ileus
Obstruction of the intestine, often caused by failure of peristalsis
Intussusception
Telescoping of a segment of the intestine
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Periodic disturbances of bowel function, such as diarrhea, and/or constipation usually associated with abdominal pain
Obesity
Excess of body fat (not body weight)
Peptic Ulcer
Another name for gastric or duodenal ulcer
Polyp
A tumorlike growth extending outward from a mucous membrane; usually benign; common sites are in the nose, throat, and intestines.
Ulcerative Colitis
Inflammation of the colon with the formation of ulcers. The main symptom is bloody diarrhea. An ileostomy may be performed to treat this condition.
Volvulus
Twisting of kinking of the intestine, causing intestinal obstruction
Abdominocentesis
Paracentesis
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdominal cavity (2 terms)
Abdominoplasty
Surgical repair of the abdomen
Anoplasty
Surgical repair of the anus
Anterectomy
Excision of the antrum
Appendicectomy
Appendectomy
Excision of the appendix (2 terms)
Celiotomy
Incision into the abdominal cavity
Cheilorraphy
Suture of the lip
Cholecystectomy
Excision of the gallbladder
Choledocholithotomy
Incision into the common bile duct to remove a stone
Colectomy
Excision of the colon
Colostomy
Creation of an artificial opening in the colon (through the abdominal wall). (Used for passage of stool. This creates a mouth-like opening on the abdominal wall called a stoma)
Diverticulectomy
Excision of a diverticulum
Enterorrhaphy
Suture of the intestine
Esophagogastroplasty
Surgical repair of the esophagus and the stomach
Gastrectomy
Excision of the stomach (or part of the stomach)
Gastrojejunostomy
Creation of an artificial opening between the stomach and jejunum
Gastroplasty
Surgical repair of the stomach
Gastrostomy
Creation of an artificial opening into the stomach (through the abdominal wall). (A tube is inserted through the opening for administration of food when swallowing is impossible.)
Gingivectomy
Surgical removal of gum (tissue)
Glossorrhaphy
Suture of the tongue
Hemicolectomy
Excision of half of the colon
Herniorrhaphy
Suturing of a hernia (for repair)
Ileostomy
Creation of an artificial opening into the ileum (through the abdominal wall creating a stoma) (Used for passage of stool.)
Laparotomy
Incision into the abdomen
Palatoplasty
Surgical repair of the palate
Polypectomy
Excision of a polyp
Pyloromyotomy
Incision into the pyloric muscle
Uvulectomy
Excision of the uvula
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty
Surgical repair of the uvula, palate, and pharynx (performed to correct obstructive sleep apnea)