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ACE PT Exam Chapter 1 Exercise Physiology

Study aid to prepare for the ACE personal trainer certification exam: Chapter 1 Exercise Physiology
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Vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary arteries, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aorta
sequence of blood flow through the heart
Oxygen extraction
has the greatest influence on exercise performance
diastole
phase in which the heart refills
Frequency, time, type, and intensity (FITT)
basis of exercise program development
have a higher aerobic capacity than fast-twitch fibers
characteristic of slow-twitch muscle fibers
Isotonic
muscle action in which the tension created by the muscle is variable throughout the range of motion
Contractile force
Golgi tendon organs serve as a protective mechanism against excessive
A nervous impulse from the central nervous system
According to the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction, which of the following is the FIRST step in the sequence of events
isometric
same length; high intensity/maximal contraction; ex: pushing against an immovable object
isotonic
same tone or tension: given resistance challenged through entire range of motion; ex: biceps curl with dumbbell
isokinetic
same speed; muscles generate maximum force through the entire range of motion while keeping the speed constant
ATP
adenosine triphosphate; the body's energy source produce from fat, carbs (glucose) and some protein
ways to replenish ATP
aerobic system and anaerobic systems: anaerobic glycolysis and creatine phosphate
glycogen
chain of glucose stored in muscles & liver; primary source of anaerobic ATP production
optimum exercise intensity for fitness improvement
50-80% VO2 max (maximum oxygen consumption) which corresponds to 60-90% maximum heart rate
3,500
calories that must be burned to lose 1 pound
VO2 max
maximum oxygen consumption OR maximum aerobic capacity; total capacity of the body to consume oxygen at the cellular level
formula to calculate VO2 max
VO2 max (ml/kg/min OR L O2/min) = cardiac output max X O2 extraction max
cardiac output
heart rate (beats per minute) X stroke volume (amount of blood pumped from each ventricle with each heart beat)
typical cardiac output at rest
60 bpm X 70 ml = 4,200 ml/min or 1 gallon of blood per minute
aerobic
with oxygen; the first system to produce ATP; dominant system when adequate oxygen is delivered to the cell to meet energy production needs; ex: when muscle is at rest; uses fatty acids and glucose to produce ATP; produces more than anaerobic because fat = 9 calories of energy per gram
anaerobic
without oxygen; when inadequate oxygen supply is available, anaerobic glycolysis and creatine phosphate systems produce ATP; carbs/glucose 4 calories of energy per grams
mitochondria
site of ATP production in cells; the more mitochondria - the more aerobic energy production capability of the cell
ischemia
decreased blood flow to the heart leading to insufficient oxygen to the heart and chest pain or angina
anaerobic threshold
point during high intensity exercise when the body can no longer meet its oxygen needs and switches to anaerobic metabolism; 50-80% maximum effort
slow twitch muscle fiber
slow speed of contraction & high capacity for aerobic glycolysis (e.g., marathon runner)
fast twitch muscle fiber
fast speed of contraction & high capacity for anaerobic glycolysis (e.g., sprinter, power lifter)
golgi tendon organ
tendon organ/part of nervous system protecting the muscle from too much contractile force; causes muscle to relax
Inability to extract O2 and use it at the muscle efficiently
primary limiting factor to no longer be able to aerobically produce ATP
Muscle stores little CP and ATP
primary limitation of producing ATP in the phosphagen system
creatine phosphate system
secondary source anaerobic ATP (to glycogen); high energy phosphate molecule store in cells; can be used to resynthesize ATP immediately; system of energy transfer for resynthesis of ATP without oxygen via breakdown of the CP molecule
glucose and fatty acid
primary energy source for runner 45-60 min @ 65% VO2 max
85%
upper limit max HRR for submax bike ergonometer test
family history heart disease, 200+ cholesterol, cigarette smoking
ACSM positve coronary risk factors
isometric training
strength increases specific to joint angle where contraction occurs
max HR/resting HR too high
Karvonen formula error for client with overexertion during aerobics w/max HR within range
caffeine
diuretic, increases HR & may enhance endurance performance
increased cardiac output at rest
physiological effects of high altitude
regular exercise, modify intensity & avoid prolonged supine position
ACOG guidelines for pregnant women 2 & 3 trimesters
optimum fitness
cardio endurance, muscular strength, flexibility & maintain ideal body weight
21 - 24%
fit woman body fat %age
14 - 17%
fit man body fat %age
hemoglobin
protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells
benefit of cv fitness
heart spends more time in relaxation phase/diastole -- at rest or during exercise
ejection fraction
% total blood volume remaining in ventricles @ the end of diastole that is subsequently ejected during contraction
lactic acid
byproduct of anaerobic ATP production
MET
metabolic equivalent; resting VO2 max of 3.5 mL/kg/min
changes in cardiac output due to aerobic conditioning
ventricles hold more blood/resting HR decreases; stroke volume @ rest increases; same cardiac output can be maintained at lower HR; and increased mitichondrial density
changes in O2 extraction due to aerobic conditioning
more capillaries; more mitochondria & more activity of mitochondrial enzymes
muscle pump
rhythmic squeezing of large muscles leg/butt against veins; increases blood supply/flow to/from heart
50-80%
max O2 consumption for general fitness improvement
60-90%
max HR for general fitness improvement
20 minutes 3-4X per week
minimum duration and frequency of exercise sessions
benefits aerobic exercise
improved body comp; decreased appetite; burn calories; strengthen skeletal system; & increase insulin sensitivity
cardiac, smooth & skeletal
types of muscle cells
myofibrils
protein strands running the length of each muscle fiber
actin and myosin
contractile proteins in the myofibrils
sarcomeres
repeating units running the length of each muscle fiber
sliding filament theory
1. CNS sends nerve impulse; 2. sufficient ATP near actin and myosin protein; 3. myosin heads/filamints attach to actin to form crossbridge; 4. myosin pulls actin to the center; 5. sacromere shortens/contraction occurs
size of fibers contracting & # of fibers contracting simultaneously
two factors that determine amount of force generated during contaction in the whole muscle
all-or-nothing principle
when a skeletal muscle is stimulated to contract it does so with maximum force; can't grade contractile force like caridiac muscle cells can
muscle spindles
fibers in the muscle tissue protecting against too much stretching; causes to muscle to contract
factors limiting flexibility
1. elastic limits ligaments & tendons; 2. muscle tissue elasticity; 3. bone & joint structure; 4. the skin
immediate muscle soreness
lactic acid build up
delayed onset muscle soreness
small tears in the muscle
CV effects of single exercise session
1. systolic bp increases; 2. diastolic bp no change or decreases; 3. blood flow to abdomen decreases (goes to the limbs); 4. peripheral resistance in vascular system decreases; 5. ATP production increases
causes of muscular fatigue
1. power event 1-30 seconds: depleted ATP; 2. 30 minutes heavy exercise: build up of lactic acid; 3. 3 hour marathon: depletion of glycogen stores
ejection fraction
50% @ rest and 100% during exercise
reach anaerobic threshold
at 50-80% of maximal effort
responses to aerobic training
1. resting HR: decreases; 2. stroke volume at rest: increases; 3. VO2 max: increases; 4. max HR: no change (based on your age); 5.mitochondrial density in muscle: increases; 6. anaerobic threshold: increases; 7. HR at submax intensity: decreases
training rules for cv fitness
1. appropriate activity: rhythmic large muscle movements; 2. freq: 3X weekly; 3. duration: 10-20 min per session; 4. intensity: 50-80% VO2 max
phosphagens
creatine phosphate & ATP; muscles store only enough to provide 10 seconds of max effort; in even well trained athletes