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Study aid to prepare for the ACE personal trainer certification exam: Chapter 1 Exercise Physiology

Vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary arteries, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aorta

sequence of blood flow through the heart

Oxygen extraction

has the greatest influence on exercise performance


phase in which the heart refills

Frequency, time, type, and intensity (FITT)

basis of exercise program development

have a higher aerobic capacity than fast-twitch fibers

characteristic of slow-twitch muscle fibers


muscle action in which the tension created by the muscle is variable throughout the range of motion

Contractile force

Golgi tendon organs serve as a protective mechanism against excessive

A nervous impulse from the central nervous system

According to the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction, which of the following is the FIRST step in the sequence of events


same length; high intensity/maximal contraction; ex: pushing against an immovable object


same tone or tension: given resistance challenged through entire range of motion; ex: biceps curl with dumbbell


same speed; muscles generate maximum force through the entire range of motion while keeping the speed constant


adenosine triphosphate; the body's energy source produce from fat, carbs (glucose) and some protein

ways to replenish ATP

aerobic system and anaerobic systems: anaerobic glycolysis and creatine phosphate


chain of glucose stored in muscles & liver; primary source of anaerobic ATP production

optimum exercise intensity for fitness improvement

50-80% VO2 max (maximum oxygen consumption) which corresponds to 60-90% maximum heart rate


calories that must be burned to lose 1 pound

VO2 max

maximum oxygen consumption OR maximum aerobic capacity; total capacity of the body to consume oxygen at the cellular level

formula to calculate VO2 max

VO2 max (ml/kg/min OR L O2/min) = cardiac output max X O2 extraction max

cardiac output

heart rate (beats per minute) X stroke volume (amount of blood pumped from each ventricle with each heart beat)

typical cardiac output at rest

60 bpm X 70 ml = 4,200 ml/min or 1 gallon of blood per minute


with oxygen; the first system to produce ATP; dominant system when adequate oxygen is delivered to the cell to meet energy production needs; ex: when muscle is at rest; uses fatty acids and glucose to produce ATP; produces more than anaerobic because fat = 9 calories of energy per gram


without oxygen; when inadequate oxygen supply is available, anaerobic glycolysis and creatine phosphate systems produce ATP; carbs/glucose 4 calories of energy per grams


site of ATP production in cells; the more mitochondria - the more aerobic energy production capability of the cell


decreased blood flow to the heart leading to insufficient oxygen to the heart and chest pain or angina

anaerobic threshold

point during high intensity exercise when the body can no longer meet its oxygen needs and switches to anaerobic metabolism; 50-80% maximum effort

slow twitch muscle fiber

slow speed of contraction & high capacity for aerobic glycolysis (e.g., marathon runner)

fast twitch muscle fiber

fast speed of contraction & high capacity for anaerobic glycolysis (e.g., sprinter, power lifter)

golgi tendon organ

tendon organ/part of nervous system protecting the muscle from too much contractile force; causes muscle to relax

Inability to extract O2 and use it at the muscle efficiently

primary limiting factor to no longer be able to aerobically produce ATP

Muscle stores little CP and ATP

primary limitation of producing ATP in the phosphagen system

creatine phosphate system

secondary source anaerobic ATP (to glycogen); high energy phosphate molecule store in cells; can be used to resynthesize ATP immediately; system of energy transfer for resynthesis of ATP without oxygen via breakdown of the CP molecule

glucose and fatty acid

primary energy source for runner 45-60 min @ 65% VO2 max


upper limit max HRR for submax bike ergonometer test

family history heart disease, 200+ cholesterol, cigarette smoking

ACSM positve coronary risk factors

isometric training

strength increases specific to joint angle where contraction occurs

max HR/resting HR too high

Karvonen formula error for client with overexertion during aerobics w/max HR within range


diuretic, increases HR & may enhance endurance performance

increased cardiac output at rest

physiological effects of high altitude

regular exercise, modify intensity & avoid prolonged supine position

ACOG guidelines for pregnant women 2 & 3 trimesters

optimum fitness

cardio endurance, muscular strength, flexibility & maintain ideal body weight

21 - 24%

fit woman body fat %age

14 - 17%

fit man body fat %age


protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells

benefit of cv fitness

heart spends more time in relaxation phase/diastole -- at rest or during exercise

ejection fraction

% total blood volume remaining in ventricles @ the end of diastole that is subsequently ejected during contraction

lactic acid

byproduct of anaerobic ATP production


metabolic equivalent; resting VO2 max of 3.5 mL/kg/min

changes in cardiac output due to aerobic conditioning

ventricles hold more blood/resting HR decreases; stroke volume @ rest increases; same cardiac output can be maintained at lower HR; and increased mitichondrial density

changes in O2 extraction due to aerobic conditioning

more capillaries; more mitochondria & more activity of mitochondrial enzymes

muscle pump

rhythmic squeezing of large muscles leg/butt against veins; increases blood supply/flow to/from heart


max O2 consumption for general fitness improvement


max HR for general fitness improvement

20 minutes 3-4X per week

minimum duration and frequency of exercise sessions

benefits aerobic exercise

improved body comp; decreased appetite; burn calories; strengthen skeletal system; & increase insulin sensitivity

cardiac, smooth & skeletal

types of muscle cells


protein strands running the length of each muscle fiber

actin and myosin

contractile proteins in the myofibrils


repeating units running the length of each muscle fiber

sliding filament theory

1. CNS sends nerve impulse; 2. sufficient ATP near actin and myosin protein; 3. myosin heads/filamints attach to actin to form crossbridge; 4. myosin pulls actin to the center; 5. sacromere shortens/contraction occurs

size of fibers contracting & # of fibers contracting simultaneously

two factors that determine amount of force generated during contaction in the whole muscle

all-or-nothing principle

when a skeletal muscle is stimulated to contract it does so with maximum force; can't grade contractile force like caridiac muscle cells can

muscle spindles

fibers in the muscle tissue protecting against too much stretching; causes to muscle to contract

factors limiting flexibility

1. elastic limits ligaments & tendons; 2. muscle tissue elasticity; 3. bone & joint structure; 4. the skin

immediate muscle soreness

lactic acid build up

delayed onset muscle soreness

small tears in the muscle

CV effects of single exercise session

1. systolic bp increases; 2. diastolic bp no change or decreases; 3. blood flow to abdomen decreases (goes to the limbs); 4. peripheral resistance in vascular system decreases; 5. ATP production increases

causes of muscular fatigue

1. power event 1-30 seconds: depleted ATP; 2. 30 minutes heavy exercise: build up of lactic acid; 3. 3 hour marathon: depletion of glycogen stores

ejection fraction

50% @ rest and 100% during exercise

reach anaerobic threshold

at 50-80% of maximal effort

responses to aerobic training

1. resting HR: decreases; 2. stroke volume at rest: increases; 3. VO2 max: increases; 4. max HR: no change (based on your age); 5.mitochondrial density in muscle: increases; 6. anaerobic threshold: increases; 7. HR at submax intensity: decreases

training rules for cv fitness

1. appropriate activity: rhythmic large muscle movements; 2. freq: 3X weekly; 3. duration: 10-20 min per session; 4. intensity: 50-80% VO2 max


creatine phosphate & ATP; muscles store only enough to provide 10 seconds of max effort; in even well trained athletes

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