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26 terms

science chapter 11 notes

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plates
Sections of Earth's lithosphere that is composed of the crust and upper mantle.
pangea
a supercontinent containing all of Earth's land that existed about 260 million years ago
lithosphere
the solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
continental drift
the hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
convergent
move together
subduction
the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
plate boundaries
plates that move apart as a result of pulling forces that act in opposite directions on each plate. it forms new crust
divergent
move apart
mid ocean ridge
An underwater moutain chain where new ocean floor is formed
transform
two plates slide past each other in opposite directions
earthquake
a shaking or sliding of the ground. It is caused by the sudden movement of masses of rock along a fault or by changes in the size and shape of masses of rock far beneath the earth's surface.
3 types of stress
tension, shearing and compression
shearing
stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement
tension
stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
compression
Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks.
faults
breaks in Earth's crust where rocks have slipped past each other
3 types of faults
normal, reverse and strike-slip faults
strike slip faults
known as transform faults when coincide with plate boundary; motion is entirely horizontal
normal fault
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust.
reverse fault
a type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust (opposite of a normal fault)
fault block mountains exist in
Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah
folding mountains
Mountains caused by compression and folding.
what type of plate movement creates folding mountains
folds are bends in the rock that form when compression shortens ad thickens part of the earth's crust
hanging wall
The block of rock that forms the upper half of a fault.
footwall
The block of rock that forms the lower half of the fault