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181 terms

Anatomy test 3

STUDY
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adipose
what type of connective tissue has cells that are packed together and contain nuclei pushed to the side?
adipose
what type of connective tissue functions for fat storage and is a source of energy and insulation-->thermoregulation?
adipose
what type of connnective tissue is located in the hypodermis of the skin?
areolar
what type of connective tissue contains a bunch of different fibers (actin filaments, collagen, elastin) with different embedded cells (fibrobasts, monocytes, mast cells)?
areolar
what type of connective tissue functions for packaging organs?
areolar
what type of connective tissue is located around organs?
dense regular
what type of connective tissue has a wavy structure of collagen fibers that are parallel to eachother and are closely packed together and has few blood vessels?
tendon
attaches bone to muscle
ligament
attaches bone to bone
aponeurosis
attaches muscle to muscle
dense irregular
what type of connective tissue has no wavy structure and the fibers run in all different directions?
dense irregular
what type of connective tissue functions for binding and support?
dense irregular
what type of connective tissue is located in the dermis of the skin?
dense regular
what type of connective tissue functions for attachment (ligaments, tendons, aponeurosis)?
dense regular
what type of connective tissue is located in tendons, ligaments, and aponeurosis?
dense elastic
what type of connective tissue contains fibers mainly made of elastin?
dense elastic
what type of connective tissue is located in the lense of the eye?
adipocytes
what type of cell makes up adipose tissue?
chondrocytes
what type of cell makes up cartilage?
hyaline cartilage
what type of connective tissue has a glassy clear background, no fibers are seen, and it is mostly made up of collagen?
hyaline cartilage
what type of connective tissue functions to reduce friction?
hyaline cartilage
what type of connective tissue is located in the costal cartilage connecting the sternum to ribs?
fibrocartilage
what type of connective tissue is very tough and has huge chondrocytes?
fibrocartilage
what type of connective tissue functions to withstand pressure, compression, and compaction?
fibrocartilage
what type of connective tissue is located in intervertebral discs and in the pubic symphysis?
elastic cartilage
what type of connective tissue looks almost identical to hyaline cartilage but the matrix looks a little more fibrous?
elastic cartilage
what type of connective tissue functions in flexibility?
elastic cartilage
what type of connective tissue is located in the external ear?
compact bone
what is found on the external surface of all bones and is arranged in a haversian system?
spongy bone
what is found in the heads of long bones and in the middle layer of flat bones?
lamellae
layers of bone made of collagenous fibers and inorganic salt matrix
canaliculi
spidery channels that permit diffusion of nutrients from the central blood vessel to the outer lamellae; they connect osteocytes
lacuna
chamber of depression (a space) in which an osteocyte is found
osteocyte
mature bone cell in lacunae arranged in circles (lamellae) around a central canal
osteon
a haversian system, a central canal and its surrounding lamellae
blood vessels
the function of the haversian canal in compact bone is to carry _______ _________.
trabeculae
in spongy bone, osteocytes are arranged on irregular structures called ___________
epithelial
type of tissue in which the cells are packed together and are avascular. contain basal membrane, apical membrane, lumen, and a basememt membrane
connective
type of tissue in which the cells are apart or separate with a matrix or ground substance in between (exception: adipose). cells are vascular (except cartilage)
epidermis
what layer of the skin is made up of stratified squamous epithelial tissue, is the most superficial layer, and is made up of 5 strata?
CLGSB
what is the order of the five strata of the epidermis in order from most superficial to deep? *first letters only
lucidum
what stratum in the epidermis is only found in thick skin?
keratinocytes
what type of specialized cell of the epidermis synthesizes keratin?
keratin
what is the waterproof protein in the epidermis that prevents dehydration and makes up the majority of epidermal cells?
melanocytes
what type of specialized cell of the epidermis synthesizes melanin and is found only in stratum basale?
melanin
what is a dark pigment in the epidermis that is present in everyone but in different proportions?
dendritic cells
what type of specialized cell of the epidermis are supplied with branches and come from monocytes? they can undergo phagocytosis and alert the immune system when they detect invading pathogens and toxins?
--found in stratum spinosum and granulosum
merkel cells
what type of specialized cell of the epidermis are sensitive to light touch and can inform the nervous system that there is sensation?
--gives goosebumps
--found in basal layer of epidermis
sudiferous
what type of gland are merocrine and apocrine glands?
--sweat glands
merocrine
what type of gland produces a "watery sweat" and is all over the skin surface to cool the body and does not smell?
--duct opens to surface
apocrine
what type of gland produces a "thick cold sweat", is located around the nipples and pubic area, and smells odoriferous?
--sex pheromones
--duct leads into nearby hair follicle and does not reach the skin's surface
sebaceous
what type of gland is a holocrine gland?
--oil glands
holocrine
what type of gland secretes sebum, and the whole cell, and ends in the basement membrane and oils diffuse to the skin's surface?
ceruminous
what type of gland is the wax gland that is in the ear to trap debris and dust so that it doesn't get into the inner ear?
--opens to surface
exocrine
collectively, the glands of the sin are called __________ glands, where secretion is released into ducts.
endocrine
_________ glands secrete hormones that are released into the bloodstream and are ductless.
hormones
____________ act within the body and does not affect others. Ex: GH, T3/T4, insulin, and glucagon
pheromones
__________ are secreted to outside the body and can affect the behavior of another individual of the same species. Ex: sex pheromones in humans
piloerector muscle
a bundle of smooth muscle cells that are attached to the hair follicle. the nervous system senses touches and triggers goosebumps. it works under involuntary control and is a reflex.
basal cell carcinoma
what type of skin cancer is the least dangerous but the most common? It rarely spreads/metastasizes, is shiny and pearly looking, and occurs in stratum basale
squamous cell carcinoma
what type of skin cancer has a reddened, scaly appearance and a raised margin? It has to be diagnosed and treated immediately. it occurs in stratum spinosum.
malignant melanoma
what type of skin cancer is the most serious? it is identified by the ABCD rule (assymetric, irregular border, mix or black brown and orange in color, and diameter is greater than 6mm)
7 year itch mite
what type of skin parasite causes the infection scabies?
--sarcoptic mite
house dust mite
what type of skin parasite will not infect the skin, but feeds on dead keratinocytes; is not parasitic
sand flea
what type of skin parasite (only female) penetrates the skin and lays eggs, leaving the abdomen exposed-->males are outside abdomen trying to get in to female?
--tungiasis---> tunga penetrans
propionibacterium
what type of skin parasite undergoes fermentation that produces propionic acid which gives you acne?
--a diff type of this bacteria is found in swiss cheese.
reserve cartilage
what zone of the epiphyseal plate contains chondrocytes? (1)
proliferation zone
what zone of the epiphyseal plate contains actively dividing cells? (2)
zone of hypertrophy
what zone of the epiphyseal plate contains cells that are becoming increasingly larger? (3)
zone of calcification
what zone of the epiphyseal plate is where Ca++ is incorporated and is under hormonal control? (4)
zone of ossification
what zone of the epiphyseal plate contains osteoblasts and osteocytes arranged on trabiculae? (5)
--all chondrocytes die
epiphyseal plate
what is the zone of elongation that is found between the spongy bone and compact bone in a growing long bone?
osteoclasts
bone degrading cells
-huge cells; multinucleated
osteoblasts
bone forming cells
howship lacunae
brush border of osteoclast fits in the _________ _________
RANKL
_______ receptors receive _________ (same word) from osteoblasts, which activates the osteoclast.
exoezymes
the osteoclasts release _______ via exocytosis for bone degradation; the environment must be highly acidic and anaerobic
degradation
bone _______ releases Ca++ into the blood, which is then used by the osteoblasts to form new cells.
intramembranous
what type of ossification starts with a membranous connective tissue the becomes gradually ossified?
--Ex: flat bones of cranium and clavicle
endochondral
what type of ossification starts with hyaline cartilage that is gradually replaced with osteocytes or osseous tissue?
--all long bones are formed this way
periosteum
tough connective tissue covering the bone in a long bone
cavity
a bone marrow ________ in a long bone is filled with either red or yellow bone marrow.
yellow
what type of bone marrow is composed of adipocytes?
red
what type of bone marrow is composed of hemopoietic cells?
ossification
what word means bone formation?
endosteum
delicate layer lining the bone marror cavity in a long bone?
axial skeleton
made up of the skull, thoracic cage, and vertebrae
8
how many cranial bones are in the skull?
14
how many facial bones are in the skull?
24
how many ribs are there?
true ribs
ribs 1-7; each has own costal cartilage connecting it to the sternum
false ribs
ribs 8-10; they are not directly connected to the sternum
floating ribs
ribs 11-12; they are not connected to the sternum at all, but are embedded in muscle
7
how many cervical vertebrae are there?
12
how many thoracic vertebrae are there?
5
how many lumbar vertebrae are there?
naegleria fowleri
a free living protozoa that secretes brain degrading enzymes, and if sniffed, it can travel through the olfactory bulb to the brain
--can shift between flagellic form and amoebic form (in amoebic form the protozoa can cause PAM)
PAM
the amoebic form of naegleria fowler can cause this sickness....
primary amoebic meningioencephalitis
what does PAM stand for?
fontanels
what are the soft spots on infants' heads called?
fontanels
spaces between unfused bones present in babies that are joined by fibrous mebranes and will later undergo intramembranous ossification
--functions: allows baby's skull to compress during birth and allows brain growth during early childhood.
intramembranous
fontanels undergo ___________ ossification
hyoid
what is the slender U-shaped bone found between the chin and the larynx? It does not articulate with any other bone.
vertebral column
made up of the 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx.
atlas
vertebra that has no body and allows for nodding motion of head
axis
vertebra that has a dens/odontoid process that articulates with c1 for head rotation
synarthrosis
functional classification of joints: immovable joints, Ex: sutures, gomphosis
amphiarthrosis
functional classification of joints: slightly movable joints...all cartilaginous joints: synchondroses and symphysis
diarthrosis
functional classification of joints: freely movable joints...all synovial joints. Ex: knee, shoulder
synovial
type of joints that contain a cavity filled with fluid for lubrication
sutures
structural classification of joints: fibrous joints; composed of strong, short fibrous tissue that allow no movement
gomphoses
structural classification of joints: fibrous joints; attaches teeth to sockets
syndesmosis
structural classification of joints: fibrous joints; composed of long, fibrous connective tissue
-joins long bones
--Ex: distal portions of tibia and fibula
fibrous
sutures, gomphoses, and syndesmosis are structurally classified as _________ joints.
cartilagenous
synchondroses and symphysis are structurally classified as _________ joints.
synchondroses
structural classification of joints: cartilagenous joints; composed of hyaline cartilage and joins bones to bones. Ex: costal cartilage
symphysis
structural classification of joints: cartilagenous joints; composed of fibrocartilage. Ex: pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs
synostosis
structural classification of joints: bony joints.
--ex: 2 frontal bones fused together by age 7, 2 mandibles fuse, epiphyseal line
stabilize
the three ligaments that _______ the knee are:
1. collateral
2. cruciate
3. transverse
collateral
the three ligaments that stabilize the knee are:
1. __________
2. cruciate
3. transverse
cruciate
the three ligaments that stabilize the knee are:
1. collateral
2. __________
3. transverse
transverse
the three ligaments that stabilize the knee are:
1. collateral
2. cruciate
3. _________
80
how many bones make up the axial skeleton?
cranial
the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones make up the 8 ________ bones.
ethmoid bone
what bone contains the structures include the middle nasal conchae, superior nasal conchae, crista galli, and cribriform plate?
crista galli
what is the raised area on the ethmoid bone that attaches to the meninges of the brain?
cribriform plate
what is the area on the ethmoid bone that is perforated and loaded with foramina (holes) that allow nerve fibers of the olfactory lobe to pass through-passes signals to the brain and leads to sense of smell?
sella turcica
what is the main structure of the sphenoid bone that houses the pituitary gland?
temporal bone
what bone contains the structures mastoid process, styloid process, zygomatic process, and external acoustic meatus?
occipital bone
which bone contains the structures foramen magnum and occipital condyles?
sutures
the four ________ consist of the coronal, sagittal, squamous, and lamboid _________(same word).
fontanels
the four main _______ are the anterior, posterior, sphenoid, and mastoid ________(same word).
cervical
_________ vertebrae have transverse processes and transverse foramina (allows nerves and blood vessels to pass through)
thoracic
________ vertebrae have a spinous process pointing downwards
lumbar
________ vertebrae have spinous processes pointing outwards and have the largest bodies.
vertebral
_________ foramina make the vertebral column; they house the spinal cord.
intervertebral
___________ foramina are the holes between the vertebrae; they house the spinal nerves.
sacrum
what bone consists of 5 fused bones with foramina throughout for passage of nerves and arteries and contains the structures superior, inferior, and lateral articulations?
coccyx
what bone consists of four fused bones and is called your tailbone?
intervertebral discs
what structures are made of fibrocartilage and are located between the vertebrae? structures include annulus fibrosus and nunclus pulposus
herniated
too much pressure in vertebral discs can cause a _________ disc. upon injury, the nucleus pulposis can ooze out and press against the spinal nerves causing a lot of pain.
nucleus pulposus
what structure in the intervertebral discs is mostly made up of water and its function is to withstand pressure?
anulus fibrosis
what structure of the intervertebral discs is made up of rings of fibrocartilage?
sternum
what bone consists of three parts: manubrium, body, and xiphoid process?
appendicular
the _____________ skeleton consists of the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle
126
how many bones make up the appendicular skeleton?
clavicle
what is the s shaped bone that contains a medial sternal end a lateral acromial end?
--aka collar bone
endochondral
the sternal end of the clavicle is ossified by __________ ossification.
intramembranous
the acromial end of the clavicle is ossified by __________ ossification.
clavicle
the ________ articulates with the acromion process of the scapula.
scapula
what bone contains the structures spine, acromion process, and coracoid process?
--aka shoulder blade
spine
what is the transverse ridge on the posterior side of the scapula?
acromion process
what structure articulates with the acromial end of the clavicle?
coracoid process
what structure is the attachment point for tendons of the biceps brachii and other arm muscles?
humerus
what bone contains a medial and lateral epicondyles that you can palpate on the inside and outside of the arm by the elbow?
ulna
what is the bone that is medial on the lower arm in anatomical position and is the larger of the two?
--head is at the distal end of the arm
radius
what is the bone that is lateral on the lower arm in anatomical position and is the smaller of the two?
--head is at the proximal end of the arm
8
how many carpal bones are there?
carpals
what are the bones that are in your wrist and are in two rows of four?
5
how many metacarpals are there?
metacarpals
what are the bones of the palm?
phalanges
what are the bones of the fingers?
--2 in thumb, and 3 in all other fingers
14
how many phalanges are in each hand?
pelvic girdle
what consists of three bones; 2 coxal/hip bones and 1 sacrum?
coxal
_____ bones articulate with the sacrum at the posterior end and are joined at the anterior end by the pubic symphysis?
--they are a fusion of three bones, the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis
ilium
what is the largest part of the os coxa that extends from the iliac spine to the acetabulum?
--structures include iliac spine, anterior superior/inferior iliac spine and posterior superior/inferior iliac spine
ischium
what is the part of the os coxa that is the inferoposterior portion of it?
--structures include the obturator foramen and the acetabulum
obturator foramen
what is the largest foramen in the body located in the ischium of the os coxa?
acetabulum
what is the part of the os coxa where three bones have fused....a deep socket that receives the head of the femur?
pubis
what is the most anterior portion of the hip/os coxa?
femur
what bone is the longest and strongest in the body and its structures include fovea capitis, head, and greater and lesser trochanter
patella
what bone is triangular shaped and is embedded in the tendon of the knee...aka your kneecap?
tibia
what bone is the larger and medial bone in the lower leg whose structures include the tibial tuberosity and medial malleolus?
fibula
what bone is the smaller and lateral bone in the lower leg whose structures include the lateral malleolus?
7
how many tarsals are in each foot?
tarsals
what bones are your ankle bones?
-largest is calcaneous
-second largest is talus
calcaneous
the largest tarsal in the foot, it forms your heel
talus
the second largest tarsal in the foot, it articulates with the tibia and calcaneous
5
how many metatarsals are there in each foot?
14
how many phalanges are in each foot?
206
how many bones are in your body?