Biology exam 4
Terms in this set (32)
The appropriate unit for defining and measuring genetic variation is the:
are random, meaning they are unrelated to how useful or harmful they might be to the organism in which they occur.
Adaptation is considered a result of:
Which organism will likely have a low fitness:
A sterile organism because it won't be able to reproduce successfully
The amount of time that has passed since two species last shared a common ancestor:
is revealed by the degree of similarity in sections of their DNA.
While on the HMS Beagle, Darwin was intrigued by glyptodonts because:
glyptodont fossils resembled a species that currently existed, but were much, much larger.
While on the voyage of the HMS Beagle, Darwin:
nurtured his love of studying nature, exploring plant and animal diversity, and collecting fossils.
Which of the following best explains the difference between homologous and analogous structures and traits?
Examples of homologous structures would be a human arm and a bat wing, whereas examples of analogous structures would be a flying mammal and a flying insect.
Which of the following does NOT describe a way that scientific understanding of the world changed following the publication of The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin?
Changes acquired by individuals during their lifetime are passed on to their offspring.
Which agent of evolution increases genetic variation in a population?
In the early 1800s when Darwin was growing up, it would have been difficult to develop a theory about how populations change over time because:
almost everyone believed that humans and all other species, once created, could not change.
____________ selection favors organisms that have character values at both extremes of the phenotypic distribution.
Which of the following statements about the relationship between humans and evolution is FALSE?
Because evolutionary processes are operating today just as they have been since life first appeared on earth, humans have not influenced evolutionary processes.
Which of the following best describes worldwide views before and after Darwin?
BEFORE: A creator put all organisms on earth at the same time. AFTER: Over time, species evolved, but it all started with one organism.
Which of the following statements about mutations is most accurate?
Whether or not a mutation occurs is not related to how useful or harmful the mutation may be.
In the 1790s, Georges Cuvier found the fossil remains of mastodons. This conflicted with the prevailing worldview in Europe because:
it meant that extinction must occur, since nothing resembling mastodons existed on earth at that time.
Mutations always decrease an organism's fitness. TRUE or FALSE
Charles Darwin spent time on the Beagle:
after graduating from college, while serving as the companion to the captain on the surveying ship.
Maze-running behavior in mice:
is a heritable trait.
Which of the following statements best describes artificial selection?
Artificial selection still exhibits differential reproductive success; however, mating and crossing is directed by humans and not nature.
A genetic change in a population of organisms is ________.
If evolution has occurred:
the allele frequencies in a population have changed.
refers both to the process by which organisms become better matched to their environment and to the features of an organism that make it more fit than other individuals.
If an individual carries only two alleles, is it possible for a single gene to have more than two alleles?
Yes. More than two possible alleles for a single gene type is called multiple allelism. The alleles for the ABO blood types are an example.
Which of the following characteristics of genes underlies the "geek theory of autism"?
Which of the following best explains Mendel's law of segregation?
Of the two copies of each gene everyone carries, only one of the two alleles gets put into each gamete.
If, when in a heterozygous state, one allele masks the effect of the other allele, the masked allele is referred to as:
Most genes come in alternative forms called:
A diploid individual with two identical alleles for a particular gene is said to be:
homozygous for that gene.
What is a pedigree?
a type of family tree that can help answer questions about genes and their inheritance patterns
What is the purpose of a test-cross?
A test-cross can reveal an unknown genotype.
The impact of a single gene on more than one characteristic is called:
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