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APHG Unit 6 Vocab
Terms in this set (72)
Levels of Develepment
Use of terms to describe the material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge andd technology of countries have created some issues and had some limitations.
The extent to which the human and natural resources of an area or country have been brought in to the full productive use.
Gross National Product (GNP)
Measure of production of goods ans services within a year and includes products made WITHIN and OUTSIDE a country.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Measure of production of goods and services made WITHIN a country.
Gross National Income (GNI)
Calculates the money worth of what is produced in a country plus income recieved from investments oustide the country.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
Takes into account of what money actually buys in a country.
The presence in a country of a technology that other countries do not have.
The sharing of technological information through education and training.
The economic control that MDC's are sometimes believed to have over LDC's
in 1960 proposed a widely cited model for economic advancement. Generalizing on the "sweep of modern history," he theorized that all developing economies may pass through five successive stages of growth and advancement.
Physical Quality of Life
The attempt to measure the quality of life or well-being of a country. Based on literacy rate, infant mortality rate, and life expectancy at age one.
Countries that are the LEAST developed in the world
Measures of Development
measures used to distinguish less developed countries from more developed countries. These include GDP, literacy rate, life expectancy, and caloric intake.
As a percentage of daily requirement is an important index of development. People in MDCs generally consume more than 130% of their daily requirements, but most people in LDCs barely get enough to sustain themselves. The problem is worst in Africa, where most people do not eat enough.
"Stages of Growth" Model
linear theory of development that developed countries go through a common patterns 1)Traditional Society, 2)Transitional Stage 3)Take Off 4)Drive to Maturity and 5)High Mass Consumption
Within many spatial systems sharp territorial contrasts exist in welth, economic advancement, and developmental growth b/w economic heartlands and outlying subordinate zones.
World Systems Theory
theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world
Version of the Core-Periphery Model that believes the peripheral regions are drained of their wealth, remaining a raw materials and food supplier while having to import all manufactured commodities. Sometimes referred to as Neo-Colonialism.
underdeveloped and developing countries of Asia and Africa and Latin America collectively
Human Development Index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
An indicator of development. MDCs tend to consume much more energy per capita than do LDCs. This will be important in the future because as LDCs begin to industrialize, there will be a great strain on the world's energy supply
The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication.
Agricultural Labor Force
The number of people who work in agriculture. This is important because a large value indicates that the country is likely an LDC dependent on agriculture, while a small value indicates that there are fewer people working in agriculture, meaning that the agriculture is more efficient.
Foreign Direct Investment
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country. (United States)
Series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods. Began in Britain in late 1700's.
Cost of enterprise operation that varies either by output level or location of the activity
Deliberate killing of a place through industrial expansion and change so that its earlier landscape and character are destroyed
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Economic development that is not uniform over an entire region, but takes place around a specific pole.
Break of Bulk Point
Places where two or more modes of transportation meet in order to ease the flow of goods and reduce costs.
Commercial center where goods are received for distribution, transshipment, or repacking.
Industrial Location Theory
The forces leading to the location of industrial activity. One choice might be the least-cost option.
The clustering of productive activities and people for mutual advantage. Companies will share facilities and services.
The savings to an individual enterprise derived from locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activities, such as other factories or retail stores
Direct, indirect, and induced consequences of change in an activity.
Circular or Cumulative Causation
The perspective on the Core-Periphery model that argues that there is an impassible, growing divide between the core and periphery regions.
Canadian Industrial Heartland
Canada has a sizable manufacturing sector, centered in Central Canada, with the automobile industry especially important.
Requires a large amount of electricity to separate pure aluminum from bauxite ore.
German geographer who was a major theorists of industrial location. He devised a model of how to understand industrial locations in regard to several factors, including labor supply, markets, resource location, and transpiration. (Least-Cost Theory)
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
principles for mass production based on assembly-line techniques, scientific management, mass consumption based on higher wages, and sophisticated advertising techniques
When the industrial or secondary sector is in decline. This can be due to a level progression from a secondary dominated economy towards a tertiary dominated economy.
The process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition.
of or relating to a society or economy marked by a lessened importance of manufacturing and an increase of services, information, and research
the social and psycological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity
A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.
Principle that an area produces the items for which it has the greatest ratio of advantage or the least ratio of disadvantage in comparison to other areas, assuming free trade exists.
Principle that maintains that the correct location of a production facility is where the net profit is the greatest. Therefore in industry, there is a tendency to substitute one factor of production (e.g., labor) for another (e.g., capital for automated equipment) in order to achieve optimum plant location.
Production companies whose cost of transportation is so little it doesn't matter here they are or where they move to.
The Four Asian Tigers (Who?)
South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
the contamination of the atmosphere by the introduction of pollutants from human and natural sources.
primary (taking raw materials from earth - agriculture, mining), secondary (manufacturing - textile or auto industries), tertiary (providing goods or services)
tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature
a natural resoirce thst can be converted into other forms of energy
the organized action of making of goods and services for sale
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
artificial cooling that drastically reduces microbial growth of certain bacteria
A crisis in which needed resources are not available to the consumers that need them.
tendency for an industry or other type of economic activity to locate close to its resources
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
the skilled practice of a practical occupation
being present everywhere at once
a group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce
Export Processing Zone
areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export-oriented industries
a periodic charge that does not vary with business volume (as insurance or rent or mortgage payments etc.)
An organization that provides communications and networking services. A communications and networking "service provider." See common carrier and private carrier
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air and reacting chemically with the ozone, breaking the ozone molocules apart
Economies of Sale
Businesses grow bigger, churn out products more quickly and cheaper.
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
Bid Rent Theory
geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
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