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ACE PT Exam Chapter 4: Nutrition

ACE PT Exam Chapter 4: Nutrition
Approximately 60% of the body is composed of which major nutrient
Increased intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels can be lowered by
Vitamins C & E, selenium, sulfur, and beta-carotene are nutrients classified as
baked potato
nutrient BEST replenishes glycogen stores immediately after high-intensity exercise
helps to synthesize hormones, enzymes, and antibodies
220 calories
caloric content of an energy bar that has 22 grams of carbohydrate, 8 grams of fat, and 15 grams of protein
protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, water
six major classes of nutrients
four (4)
# of calories in 1 gram of carbohydrate and protein
nine (9)
# of calories in 1 gram of FAT
seven (7)
# of calories in 1 gram of alcohol
major function of protein
build & repair tissue
major function of carbohydrate
source of energy and fiber
major function of FAT
energy storage; provides essential fatty acids; supports skin and hormone function; transports fat soluble vitamins; most important fuel for light to moderate intensity exercise
major function of vitamins
help release energy from food
major function of minerals
hormone and nerve impulse components; regulate muscle contractions & heart rhythm; build tissues; comprise hemoglobin and hormones
major function of water
60% of body -- can't be stored or conserved
essential amino acids
compounds the body can't make for itself; building blocks of carbs and vitamins
recommended nutrient intakes
protein: 50-70g 12-20% total calories; carbs: 125-400g 55-65% total calories; FAT: 30-65g 25-30% total calories; vitamins and minerals: per RDA; water: 2-3 qt/8-12 cups daily
recommended daily allowance (RDA)
nutrient levels recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Science; designed to meet the needs of the same age and gender; avg daily intake for health
fat soluble vitamins
too much can lead to toxicity
adequate intake
reco daily intake -- only when RDA can't be determined
tolerable upper intake level
maximum daily intake
estimated average requirement
daily intake meets half for healthy individual in a given group
USDA Dietary Guidlines
1. consume adequate nutrition within calorie limits 2. promote weight management 3. incorporate physical activity 4. fruits, veggies, low/non fat dairy 5. appropriate fats 6. fiber rich carbs -- fruit, veggie, whole grains 7. balance sodium and potassium 8. limit alcohol 9. food safety
MyPyramid Food Guidance System
1. daily physical activity 2. moderation 3. personalization - food/amount by age, sex, activity level 4. proportionality: % each food group daily 5. variety 6. gradual improvement -- small daily steps to improve habits
impact on typical diet of MyPyramid
1. increase fruit, veggie, whole grains = more vitamins, minerals and fiber 2. decrease saturated/trans fats & cholesterol 3. balance caloric intake with activity level to promote a healthy weight
USDA guideline adjustment for increased physical activity
increase carbs to 65% of total intake
major classes of vegetarians
vegan & lacto-ovo (eat egg and dairy)
complete protein
contain all essential amino acids; animal based
incomplete protein
missing some essential amino acids; plant based
way to combine incomplete protein to create complete protein
1. incomplete + incomplete (rice & beans; peanut butter & bread); 2. incomplete & complete (cereal & milk)
the most important nutrient for exercising muscles
principle function of carbohydrates
1. primary energy source 2. brain/CNS function 3. helps body use fat more efficiently
stored carbs or glycogen
primary fuel for exercise
carb intake for people working out every other day
calculation of carb intake
4-5 grams per kilogram of body weight (1.8 - 2.7 grams per pound)
carbohydrate loading
technique to double glycogen stores in the muscles
findings of classic study on carb loading
1. low carb supported 1 hour of exercise until exhaustion 2. normal 115 minutes 3. high carb 170 minutes
drawbacks of carb loading
1. reduced intake causes low blood sugar and ketosis 2. intense training -- injury
low blood sugar
increased blood acids
revised method of carb loading
gradual reduction of exercise duration and increase of carb intake
24 hours
time for muscles glycogen to be fully restored
high-glycemic foods
carbs that quickly empty into the bloodstream; raise blood glucose and insulin & support glycogen synthesis; good to eat after exercising
20 amino acids
compostion of protein
adult protein requirements
.8 to 1.0 grams per kilogram (2.2 pounds per kilo) of body weight
athlete protein requirements
1.2 to 1.8 grams per kilogram of body weight
effects of excess protein consumption
leaches away calcium, compromises carb/glycogen stores, increases fat
reco re amino acid supplementation
discourage; can cause toxicity, amino acid imbalance; deficiency in protein nutrients if used to replace protein
effect of low fat high carb diet
more glycogen for muscles; more power and speed
national cholesterol education program; total < 200
low density lipoproteins; BAD cholesterol; <100 mg/dL; lower with exercise, weight loss, more monounsaturated & polyunsaturated fats and lower total calories consumed
high density lipoproteins; GOOD cholesterol; >40 mg/dL; more protein; remove bad cholesterol; increase with moderate to vigorous exercise
bulk of dietary fat; glycerol + 3 fatty acids
saturated fatty acids
carries maximum # of hydrogen atoms
coconut and palm oil
vegetable fats that act like saturated fats & raise cholesterol
process of breaking down bonds in unsaturated fats and making them solid
effect of trans fatty acids
raise cholesterol even higher than saturated fats
role of vitamins and minerals
serve as coenzymes in metabolic reactions that release energy, transport/consume oxygen amd maintain cell integrity
ergogenic aids
use of vitamins and minerals to enhance metabolic reactions
nutrients people usually get enough of
folate, vitamin B6, antioxidants, calcium, zinc
reco re vitamin supplements
not needed with a balanced diet
water and fat soluble
types of vitamins
water soluble vitamins
not stored by the body BUT mega doses can cause toxicity
fat soluble vitamins
stored by the body
symptoms of oversupplementation
diarrhea, vomiting, skin rash, general malaise
way to wean from excessive supplements
gradually replace with food nutrients
compounds that preserve and protect other compounds in the body from free radical damage
free radicals
oxygen molecule with a single electron
plant chemicals from fruits, veggies, spices, herbs, beans, grains and seeds
function of iron
essential to the formation of hemoglobin
macro - and trace -
types of minerals
iron metabolism disorder; large deposits of iron are made in the liver
iron deficiency
reco iron intake
eat meat; combo veggies and protein; enriched fortified cereals and pasta; leafy greens/legumes, whole grains
osteoporosis risk factors
post-menopause; calcium intake; activity level
reco calcium intake
pre-menopausal: 1,000 mg post-menopausal: 1,500 mg
ways to monitor fluid levels
1. weigh-in pre and post exercise 2. check color of urine; dark = need fluids
reco re: sports drinks
5-10% carbohydrate concentration
fluid replacement guidelines
2-3 cups per pound lost; drink before you get thirsty; keep drinking after thirst is quenched
hypercaliuric effect
excretion of excess calcium in the urine; loss from bones