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Sociology Chapter 17 powerpoint
Terms in this set (58)
System of beliefs, symbols, and rituals, based on some sacred or supernatural realm, guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a community.
"religion is a sacred canopy"
Distinction between the sacred and the profane
-creation of sacred
-organization of believers
What are common characteristics of all religions?
the belief that supernatural forces affect people's lives positively or negatively.
the belief that plants, animals, and elements of the natural world are endowed with spirits that impact events in society: example : spirit houses: found in many areas of Southeast Asia
belief in a God or Gods
belief in more than one god
belief in a single deity
Nontheistic religion or Ethical religion
based on a belief in sacred principles of thought and conduct, rather than a god or gods
Example: The central human figure in the Maasai religious system is the laibon who may be involved in: shamanistic healing, divination and prophecy, ensuring success in war or adequate rainfall
-Provides meaning and purpose to life
-Promotes a sense of belonging
-Provides social control and support for the government
Religion has important functions:
-religion is the "opiate of the people"
-It "drugs" people into accepting intolerable and unequal conditions
-It promises a better life in the future
According to Karl Marx:
Work is a calling
catalyst for social change
Religion could be a?
work is an unintended consequence of religious piety and hard work
The emergence of capitalism through a religious belief:
Symbolic Interactionist perspective
-Religion serves as a reference group to help people define themselves.
-Women's versions of a certain religion usually differ from men's versions.
Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Judaism, Islam, Christianity
What are some of the popular world religions?
believed to be oldest religion-1500 B.C.E. (before the Christian Era)
yoga, adherence to scripture and devotion
Individual souls undergo cycles of life, death and rebirth until the soul earns liberation-through?
nirvana by uniting individual soul with the universal soul
The soul's acquiring each new body is tied to the law of karma; final goal:
-No specific founder
-719 million followers
Founder: Siddhartha Gautama -- Four Noble Truths
pain and suffering
Life is dukkha
craving and coveting
Cause of life's suffering is tanha
One can overcome tanha escape the cycle of eternal rebirth and be?
the Eightfold Path to Nirvana
Overcoming desire can be accomplished through?
309 Million followers
Founder: K'ung Fu-Tzu
The "family of scholars"
sayings of Confucius stress role of virtue and order in relationships
-Respect for others
-5.9 million followers
People must learn the importance of order in human relationships and follow a strict moral conduct including:
Abraham, Isaac & Jacob
Who is the founder of Judaism?
-God (the deity)
-Torah (God's teachings) -Israel (the holy nation)
Three key components of Judaism:
holiness, justice, mercy, and fidelity to God's law
God has covenant Israelites who are called to life of?
Orthodox, Reform and Conservative
Three main branches of Judaism:
Who is the founder of Islam?
More than 21% of the world's population considers itself to be?
The notion of jihad is a core belief, what does that mean?
The Greater Jihad
internal struggle against sin in a person's heart
external struggle that takes place in the world
Muhammad received the Qur'an from God, when?
an eternal Garden of Eden
Believers submitting to will of God, as revealed in the Qur'an will go to?
Who is the founder of Christianity?
1. Jesus is the Son of God
2. Through belief in Christ, good moral behavior (and/or God's grace), people achieve eternal life with God
3. Belief in Sacred Trinity: God the Creator; Jesus, Son of God and Redeemer; and the Holy Spirit
Christianity is based on a set of beliefs:
33% of world's population identity themselves as?
official religion of the church or state
large organization-has stable membership & fixed doctrines and rituals
large well-established religious organizations
emphasizes fundamentalist teachings-has strict ethical codes
extreme form of sect; short-lived; stress devotion to charismatic leader
What is an example of christian sect?
A national belief system that binds people together; certain values shared; values of society become sacred call on a deity to protect the society
transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious (or irreligious) values and secular institutions.
numerous aspects of religious activity, dedication, and belief
promoting unity against the worlds christian churches
the rise of fundamentalism
-Has emerged because people do not like to see social changes affecting their beliefs and values
-viewes science and new technologies as a threat to traditional beliefs and practices
-oppose religious accommodation to" worldly things
Christian movement advocating freedom from historical oppression
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