APUSH Exam Review
Terms in this set (235)
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
a war time conference, that was attended by Truman, Attlee, and Stalin. It agreed on the establishment of the Oder-Neisse line as the border of areas administrated by government of Poland, the expulsion of the German populations remaining beyond the borders of Germany, war reparations, reversion of all German annexations in Europe after 1937, statement of aims and means of the occupation of Germany, and the prosecution of Nazi war criminals. In addition, the Allies issued the Potsdam Declaration which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan.
Graying of America
the aging of the American population, or increase of the proportion of elderly citizens, caused by a declining birth rate and increased life expectancy. Caused an increase in costliness of Social Security pensions, rapid increase in health costs, and meant the elderly would be politically formidable.
An increase in population by almost 30 million people. This spurred a growth in suburbs and three to four children families.
This region consists of a broad band of states running across the South from Florida to Texas, extending west and north to include California and the Pacific Northwest. Beginning in the 1970s, this area experienced rapid economic growth and major gains in population.
Urban areas in New England and Middle West characterized by concentrations of declining industries (steel or textiles).
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
This was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program this. In 1965, Congress passed many measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. This became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
group of American writers who came to prominence in the 1950s, and also the cultural phenomena that they wrote about and inspired (later sometimes called "beatniks"). Central elements of "Beat" culture include a rejection of mainstream American values, experimentation with drugs and alternate forms of sexuality, and an interest in Eastern spirituality. Examples: Ginsberg and Kerouac
Brown v. Board of Ed
Ruled that racially segregated schools violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment. Reversed the principle of "separate but equal" established in Plessy v Ferguson
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
key civil rights organization. SCLC. founded in 1957 by, among others, Dr. MLK Jr.
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
Mostly college age students who were unhappy with the pace of change in Civil Rights.
a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. he urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
attempt to desegregate citadel of segregation; use of police dogs and fire hoses on nonviolent protesters; desegregation partially achieved; sympathy for civil rights movement -> federal legislation for civil rights
Civil Rights Act 1964
Title II banned discrimination in public places on the basis of race, color, national origin, or religion. title VII prohibited employment discrimination based on gender.
Voting Rights Act 1965
stop voting discrimination in the south - Suspended literacy tests, empowered federal officials to register voters, prohibited states from changing voting procedures without federal permission.
Freedom Summer 1965
Voter Registration were main focus, violence made some activists involved more radical, SNCC, CORE and SCLC united to form COFO to coordinate activities in Mississippi, murder of 3 men helped win sympathy for Civil Rights Movements
1960s; wrote "The Feminine Mystique," an account of housewives' lives in which they subordinated their own aspirations to the needs of men; bestseller was an inspiration for many women to join the women's rights movement later co-founded NOW (National Organization for Women)
written by Rachel Carson in 1962 controversial, it criticized chemicals and named their makers "if the song bird gets sick, humans aren't far behind" "we're all toxic from conception to death"
federal/state relationship proposed by Reagan administration during the 1980s; hallmark is returning administrative powers to the state governments
label Nixon gave to middle-class Americans who supported him, obeyed the laws, and wanted "peace with honor" in Vietnam, he contrasted this group with students and civil rights activists who disrupted the country with protests in the late 1960s and early 1970s
War Powers Act
1973. A resolution of Congress that stated the President can only send troops into action abroad by authorization of Congress or if America is already under attack or serious threat.
Nixon's policy towards communist nations. It is a relaxation of tensions between the U.S. and USSR in the '60s and '70s when the two powers signed treaties limiting nuclear arms productions and opened up economic relations
Civil Rights Commission 1957
Primarily a voting rights bill to end continuing discrimination, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction. Proposed by Eisenhower. It held hearings on implementation of Brown v. Board of Education and investigated and reported on cases involving discrimination
Led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part of the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, self-styled revolutionaries for Black Power.
Spread ideas of black nationalism. disagreed w/ both the tactics and goals of the early civil rights movement. Part of the Nation of Islam (Black Muslims).
A group that was made in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, pushed Brown v. Board forward.
southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.
"The Lonely Crowd"
David Riesman a sociologist argued that this conformity in the 1950's was changing people to being "inner directed"
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Rock and Roll
the combo of white country and western music, with black rhythm and blues, with a strong, steady beat to form a new type of music. It became popular with teens in the 1950's and caused generational tensions
A period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation). This happened during the 1970's and 1980's and many believe that it was started by government spending on social welfare and the Vietnam War
Economic Opportunity Act
An economic act that was part of the Great Society. It created many social programs to help the poor.
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
Plan to prevent the spread of communism
refers to the secrecy and isolation of the Soviet Union and its satellite states, East Germany, Hungary, and Poland, after World War II. The phrase was first used by Winston Churchill while he was giving a speech in the United States.
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Federal Employee Loyalty Program
United States Executive Order 9835, sometimes known as The Loyalty Order, was signed March 21, 1947 by U.S. President Harry S. Truman. The order established the first general loyalty program in the United States, which was designed to root out communist influence within the various departments of the U.S. federal government.
National Security Act
centralized dept. of defense to coordinate army, creation of national sercurity council to make foregin policy, creation of central intelligence agency (CIA) to use espionage
blockaded east germany from american supplies. americans bypassed by air-lifting goods to the germans
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
In 1950, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy began a campaign against communists in government that led to more than four years of charges and countercharges, ending when the Senate censured him in 1954. This became the contemporary name for the red scare of the 1950's.
A document that pushed for a large build up of the U.S military. It allowed the U.S to quickly build up its military for the Korean conflict, done by the National Securtiy Council
Shah of Iran
Leader of Iran supported by the United States who wanted to nationalize their oil and improve economy, sparks Iranian Revolution and Shah is overthrown (1979)
when President Nasser of Egypt announced his intention to build a damn in the Suez to provide power and irrigation to Egypt, the United States offered its financial support, withdrawing it when Nasser spoke with the Communists on the subject. Nasser responded by nationalizing the Suez canal, which was previously owned by British and French stockholders. This hurt Europe by crippling their oil supply, most of which came from the Persian Gulf. The French and British retaliated by striking Egypt, confident that the United States would supply them with the oil they needed while they foughtwith the Middle East. President Eisenhower refused to do so, forcing the allies to withdraw their troops. As a result, U.N. troops acted for the first time to maintain peace and order in the world. Soviets tried to interfere. Eisenhown put the Strategic Air Command on alert.
policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country
(1958) A political revolution that removed the United States supported Fugencio Batista from power. The revolution was led by Fidel Castro who became the new leader of Cuba as a communist dictator.
The incident when an American spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
Bay of Pigs
was an American attempt to overthrow the newly established communist government in Cuba by training and sending Cuban rebels. The coup ended up in a disaster due to the lack of support by the Americans. The incident was an embarrassment for the U.S. and ultimately led to Castro pleading for Soviet aid (Cuban Missile Crisis)
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
During the Vietnam War, whis was created. It stated that the United States would honor its exisiting defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.
Treaty signed in 1972 between the U.S. and the USSR. This agreement limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the SALT II discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.
A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Commander of the UN forces at the beginning of the Korean War, however President Harry Truman removed him from his command after he expressed a desire to bomb Chinese bases in Manchuria.
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
Dien Bien Phu
the French military base that fell after a 56-day siege by Vietnam troops
French wanted out of Vietnam , the agreement signed by Ho Chi Minh France divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Minh's government to the North. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem.
Leader of South Vietnam, 1954-1963; supported by United States, but not by Vietnamese Buddhist majority; assassinated in 1963
National Liberation Front
Ho Chi Minh wanted to unite Vietnam under Northern rule and aided what group of communist rebels trying to overthrow Diem in the south. Official title of the Viet Cong. Created in 1960, they lead an uprising against Diem's repressive regime in the South.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
an Ohio University where National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting the Vietnam War on May 4,1970, wounding nine and killing four
Hard Hat Riots
Some blue-collar construction workers of New York rioted against protesters against the war. The union workers were for the war because they were vehemently against communism as it would hurt their livelihood.
Paris Peace Accords
1973 peace agreement between the United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the Vietcong that effectively ended the Vietnam War.
Interstate Highway Act
1956 law that authorized the spending of $32 billion to build 41,000 miles of highway
National Defense Education Act
As a result of Sputnik, the U.S passed this act to financially help students for college and schools in math and science. It showed the uncertainty that Americans felt with comparison to the Soviets in respect to education.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Formed to create satellites and missiles to compete with the USSR after Sputnik.
started in October 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries or the OAPEC (consisting of the Arab members of OPEC, plus Egypt and Syria) proclaimed it "in response to the U.S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military" during the Yom Kippur war; it lasted until March 1974. OAPEC declared it would limit or stop oil shipments to the United States and other countries if they supported Israel in the conflict.
One of the most popular evangelical ministers of the era. Star of the first televised "crusades" for religious revival. He believed that all doubts about the literal interpretation of the bible were traps set by Satan. He supported Republicans and a large increase to money in the military. Also influential in the Religious Revival
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
McCarran Walter Act
Also known as the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952, it kept limited immigration based on ethnicity, but made allowances in the quotas for persons displaced by WWII and allowed increased immigration of European refugees. Tried to keep people from Communist countries from coming to the U.S. People suspected of being Communists could be refused entry or deported.
Migration of blacks to the North between 1910 and 1930 because of deteriorating race relations in the South and more job opportunities in the North.
He was an American poet. He wrote in his Poem "Howl" about the destructive forces of conformity in the United States.
wrote "The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit;" social critic commenting on the bland homogenization of the US
Created by advertisement, and began American's need to buy things.
a rebellion of teens and young adults against mainstream American society in the 1960s
believed in anti-materalism, free use of drugs, they had a casual attitude toward sex and anti-conformity, (1960s) practiced free love and took drugs, flocked to San Francisco- low rent/interracial, they lived in communal "crash pads", smoked marijuana and took LSD, sexual revolution, new counter culture, Protestors who influenced US involvement in Vietnam
Election of 1960
Brought about the era of political television. Between Kennedy and Nixon. Issues centered around the Cold War and economy. Kennedy argued that the nation faces serious threats from the soviets. Nixon countered that the US was on the right track under the current administration. Kennedy won by a narrow margin.
1968 Chicago Democratic Convention
held at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968. Because Democratic President Lyndon Johnson had announced he would not seek a second term, the purpose of the convention was to select a new nominee to run as the Democratic Party's candidate for the office
label nixon gave to middle-class americans who supported him, obeyed the laws, and wanted "peace with honor" in vietnam, he contrasted this group with students and civil rights activists who disrupted the country with protests in the late 1960s and early 1970s
attempts by Presidents Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states through block grants
The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment.
1978 - a popular uprising forced the Shah to flee Iran and a Muslim and national leader, the Ayatollah Khomeini, established an Islamic Republic based on the Koran. President Carter allowed the Shah to come to the U.S. for medical reasons. Young Iranian militants broke into the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and kept the staff hostage for 444 days, releasing them January, 1981
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
one of the first people to realize the global dangers of pesticide abuse (DDT). Wrote Silent Spring.
American Feminist, writer of The Feminine Mystique, cofounded NOW
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the ___________. In 1965, Congress passed many measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
wrote Unsafe at any Speed; provoked to have safer cars
Miranda v. Arizona
1966 Supreme Court case that ruled that upon arrest, a suspect has the right to remain silent and the right to consult with a lawyer.
National Organization of Women
(1966) founded by Betty Friedan; organization formed to work for economic and legal rights of women; demanded equality in educational and job opportunies, wages, and political representation; creation of childcare facilities; wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
Equal Rights Amendment
Supported by the National Organization for Women, this amendment would prevent all gender-based discrimination practices. However, it never passed the ratification process.
1970s; a new right activist that protested the women's rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s
Roe v. Wade
court case that established national abortion guidelines based on trimesters; 1st no state interference, 2nd state may regulate to protect health of mother; 3rd state may regulate to protect health of unborn child
Three Mile Island
Nuclear Power Plant in Harrisburg, Penn. which failed, causing radiation to be admitted in the air; symbolized dangers of nuclear energy.
a holiday conceived of by environmental activist and Senator Gaylord Nelson to encourage support for and increase awareness of environmental concerns; first celebrated on March 22, 1970
policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies, british colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureacrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government
Puritan response to the dilemma of what to do with the children born to non-church members as fewer and fewer Puritans sought full membership (visible sainthood) in the church; leaders allowed such children to be baptized, but they could not take communion, nor could non-church males vote in government/church affairs.
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become this. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the _______ would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
(The religious consequence of the enlightenment.) God created the universe and then stepped away and left it running, now the universe is governed by natural law.
In 1605, Samuel de Champlain created a permanent settlement that started in Quebec with furs and fish and later spread into Louisiana.
a devoted Puritan, started to hold prayer meetings where they discussed sermons and compared ministers. this created a problem for Puritan leaders; in 1637, the General Court called her to trial to answer to charges of heresy, and was banished
title was Lord Baltimore; founded Maryland as a haven for Catholics
he was an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
attacked royal governors with his newspaper, NY Weekly Journal, establish the right of free press by winning a court case
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
name given to the Separatists and Strangers who traveled together on the Mayflower
Colony settled by the Pilgrims. It eventually merged with Massachusetts Bay colony.
1629: a powerful colony established by Congregationalists (puritans who wanted to reform the Anglican Church from within), this lead to the "Great Puritan Migration" (1629-1642). Mass. Bay was known as "city upon a hill" which derived from belief that Puritans had a covenant with God.
this system gave parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
a revolt against powerful colonial authority in jamestown by nathaniel bacon and a group of landless fronteir settlers that resulted in the burning of jamestown in 1676
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, They followed a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania.
The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.
This colony was settled near the Hudson River. they also set up the West India Company to trade beaver furs. It was run by a Patroon System where a ew rich families were given huge tracts of land; They then rented land to at least 50 families. People from all regions and backgrounds were welcome
Focused on fur trade with main colony in Quebec, the king discouraged migrants to preserve an ample supply of military recruits at home. 1681 La Salle traveled down MS to Gulf. these had disastrous impact on Amerindians in the great lakes region by starting a series of wars. Most were Jesuits, a religious order originally founded to combat the Reformation, but they did not exploit the labor of the Amerindians.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony and was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
This event, which occurred on August 10, 1680, in modern-day Santa Fe, New Mexico, was the most successful uprising against Spanish authority in the New World. The Native Americans took over the governor's residence as their own and remained there to protect their land. Spain was unable to reclaim its New Mexico colony for over twelve years and made compromises with the Pueblos.
Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.
in 1681, Charles II awarded this to William Penn, in order to pay off a debt to his father. He established this as a refuge for Quakers. It attracted Scots-Irish and German Immigrants. Although it was a tolerant society Slavery was legal there until 1780.
Albany Plan of Union
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
Cities that were deliberately established or developed as administrative commercial centers by colonial or imperial powers.
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
A 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area
Proclamation of 1763
Prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachian Mountains, ostensibly to solve the Indian problems
doctrine of John Calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is predetermined by god
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
English promoter of exploration. In 1584 he wrote A Discourse of Western Planting in which he pleaded for colonies to accomplish diverse objects: to extend the reformed religion, to expand trade, to supply England's needs from her own dominions, and various other reasons for exploration.
Joint Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
first permanent English settlement, located near the Chesapeake Bay
The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the "________" to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.
was an English soldier, sailor, and author. He is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas.
was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
the theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone
Church of England
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife
People who wanted to have a separate from the church of england, or a different church. Also known as Pilgrims.
(Bible) an agreement between God and his people in which God makes certain promises and requires certain behavior from them in return
Church system set up by the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony wherein each local church served as the center of its own community
Anne Hutchinson's complicated religious theory involving God talking directly to everyone, not just high ranking religious officials
Maryland Act of Toleration
1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
1637 The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.
King Phillips War
War between the Native American tribes of New England led by Metacomet and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags, King Phillip lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.
1639-1676 Wamponoag sachem known to the English as King Philip. He led one of the last Native Americans battles against the colonist in New England in 1676.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Colonies controlled by the British king through governors appointed by him and through the king's veto power over colonial laws.
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758) Great Awakening
The oldest college in America, which reflected Puritan commitment to an educated ministry
Treaty of Paris
This treaty ended the Seven Years War
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
attempted to eliminate the different forms of currency used by the American Colonies
Sugar Act of 1764
An act that raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. It also increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies.
Currency Act of 1764
Forbade the colonies to issue paper money. The colonists saw the British government increasing its control over the colonies against the colonists' will.
Social Compact Theory
implies that the people give up sovereignty to a government or other authority in order to receive or maintain social order through the rule of law
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Stamp Act Congress
group of colonists who protested the Stamp Act, saying that Parliament couldn't tax without colonist' consent. No taxation without representation!
Daughters of Liberty
An organization formed by women prior to the American Revolution They got together to protest treatment of the colonies by their British Rulers
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used poth peaceful and violent means of protest
Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
act that allowed laws to be passed by Parliament in 1767 that set taxes on imports to the colonies
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.
Signed in 1774, intended to reorganize the way these British territories were governed, Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
First Continental Congress
convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system. Georgia was the only colony not present.
Battle of Lexington/Concord
April 19, 1775, was the "shot heard round the world", 70 minutemen against a much larger british force, first battle outside of Concord, british attempted to capture patriot leaders Adams and Hancock, start of revolutionary war
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
The official army of the colonies, created by second continental congress and led by George Washington
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809), Wrote Common Sense
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Articles of Confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states
Congress of Confederation
National government; what the 2nd Continental Congress 'morphed' into; 9 states were needed to pass another article or amendment to the Articles of Confederation; 13 states were needed to pass the initial Articles of Confederation
Treaty of Paris of 1783
Treaty Between England and the Colonies , formally ended the American Revolutionary War
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
the convention of United States statesmen who drafted the United States Constitution in 1787
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states.
the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution
opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states
a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the Constitution
powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution
the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
a person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take actions that the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from taking.
a person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
The government would take the debt of the nations and the states debt, make a national bank, and tax higher (which was the only one that did not pass thru congress)
Bank of the United States
first bank established in 1791 as part of the system proposed by Hamilton to launch the new government on a sound economic basis
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong state governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
a protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris in December 1796.
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
agreement between the united states and spain that changed floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Alien and Sedition Acts
acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Revolution of 1800
Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic Republicans unseated the incumbent Federalist party. It was the first time in a western government where a change in the ruling power had occurred so radically, peacefully, and without bloodshed.
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
1755-1835. U.S. Chief Supreme Court Justice. Oversaw over 1000 decisions, including Marbury v Madison and McCulloch v. Maryland.
Slave revolt in Haiti which overthrew French control and became an independent nation
was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
Lewis and Clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
The practice of forcing people into service. British ships would stop American vessels and impress American sailors. This led to Americans becoming extremely angry and eager for war with Britain.
occurred on June 22, 1807, the British warship HMS Leopard attacked and boarded the American frigate Chesapeake.
Embargo Act of 1807
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
War of 1812
a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
Burning of DC
Act committed by the British in retaliation for the burning of their embassy in Canada, President James Madison and his wife Dolley Madison remained behind in defense of the city.
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.