44 terms

IB Geography HL - Option E Leisure, Sport, and Tourism


Terms in this set (...)

Any freely chosen activity or experience that takes place in non-work time.
A leisure time activity undertaken voluntarily and for enjoyment. Includes pursuits, organised outings and events, and non-paid (non-professional sports).
A physical activity involving a set of rules or customs. The activity may be competitive. Involves events and competitions at the national and international scale with professional participants.
Refers to the money that 'escapes' rom a tourist destination and makes its way to other countries via airline companies, hotel companies, MNC's, food importers, etc.
Discuss the difficulties in attempting to define leisure, recreation, tourism and sport.
Tourism - does not account day trips, or business tourism.

Sport, leisure, and recreation - overlap; participation in them may be simultaneous (e.g. a person may golf/ski during their holiday).
Tourism focusing on the natural environment and local communities.
Heritage tourism
Tourism based on a historical legal (landscape feature, history, etc.)
Sustainable tourism
Tourism that conserves primary tourist resources and supports the livelihoods and culture of the local people.
Mass tourism
An organized form of large-scale tourism, in which travel, accommodation and meals are booked and paid for in advance.

Changes: lost flavor with more affluent tourists.
Factors affecting the growth of tourism
Affluence, transport, technology, accessibility/growth of remote destinations, economic and political stability.
Factors affecting decline of tourism
Tightening up of airport security, rises in price of oil, decreased disposable income, increased awareness of individual carbon expenditure.
Tourism accounts for ... of global GDP and provides ... of all jobs
Influence of affluence upon the growth of these activites
More disposable income - more tourism
- Emerging economies
- More people can afford traveling on holidays

More education - more international travels

More urbanised living (1/2 world's pop.) - growing
desire to escape pressures of urban living

More transport
- Car ownership, train networks, new airports
- Low-cost airlines
Tourism is influenced by three major factors
1. Tourist DEMAND
2. Organization of ACCESS by tour operators
3. SUPPLY of destinations
Influence of changes in technology upon the growth of these activites
Telecommunications, IT, Internet, credit cards, transportation.

Internet - more advertisements for tourist destinations, online booking, customer reviews.
Influence of economic/political stability upon the growth of these activities
General levels of freedom and prosperity, more income, means more tourism.

+ Removal of visa restrictions, government investment, greater political freedom, increased stability of area (Vietnam after war in 60's/70's), single currency in Europe (Euro), weakening of currency in tourist destinations

- Political instability (i.e. Libya), introduction of visas, tourist tax, exit tax, closing of borders, weakening of domestic currency (intl. tourism more expensive), economic recession, cost of travelling
Traditionally, international tourism has been dominated by Western Europe due to:
Established tradition in domestic tourism
Mature and developed pattern of infrastructure
Large variety of natural/man-made attractions
Affluent and mobile population
Range of climatic zones (facilitates winter/summer tourism)
There has been a _% increase in number of international tourists between 2000 and 2020
There has been a ... in the share of tourists to regions in Europe and the Americas, an ... in Asia-Pacific region (centred on Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, HK, Japan, and Australia).

Note: static positions in areas of chronic underdevelopment in developing countries in parts of Africa and south Asia (e.g. India) and the politically unstable Middle East
Primary tourist/recreational resources
Pre-existing attractions for tourism or recreation

Note built specially for the purpose, including climate, scenery, wildlife, indigenous people, cultural and heritage sites
Secondary tourist/recreational resources
Attractions built for tourism or recreation, including accommodation, catering, entertainment, and shopping
Societal influences on rising/falling demand of tourism
+ smaller families, increased leisure time, increased life expectancy, improved linguistic skills, increased world population, increased ICT

- Terrorist attacks, ethnic tensions between visitors/tourists and locals
Butler's Model of Evolution of Tourist Areas
Exploration - few tourists, new location, min. impact

Involvement - destinations become better known, improvements in infrastructure, local involvement begins

Development - inward investment, tourism becomes big business, more package tours and less local involvement

Consolidation - tourism becomes an important industry in an area/region, involves provision of facilities being reserved for tourists, resentment begins, decelerating growth rate

Stagnation - increased local opposition to tourism, awareness of problems it creates, fewer tourists arrive

Rejuvenation OR
Decline - area decreases in popularity

(mnemonic: everyone in downtown Chicago shits diamonds or rubies)
Niche tourism
Evolved out of a desire for diversity and something new. Offers specialized tourism. More likely to uphold principle of sustainability.
- Controlled numbers of tourist
- Minimizes impacts on host culture and environment
Alternative tourism
Type of tourist activity other than mass tourism.

Cultural - ethno-tourism (Tribes, Andaman Islands)
Environmental - eco-tourism (Monteverde, Costa Rica)
Rural - agro-tourism (wine-making, France)
Urban - heritage (Museums, St. Petersburg)
Case studies to know
Case study of a contemporary international sporting event

Case study of a national tourist industry

Case study of ecotourism

Case study of a national sports league
Benefits and limitations of hosting an international sporting event
+ Prestige, economic spin-offs/multiplier effect, national unity and sense of pride, improved infrastructure, profits

- Possible financial loss, terrorism, overcrowding, loss of esteem, increased security risks
Benefits and limitations of tourism as a development strategy for low-income countries
+ money spent stimulates economy, etc.), extra income, attracts FDI, increased entrepreneurship, improved international relations, creates jobs, positive multiplier effect: when development of one service/industry has a positive effect on other service and industries (creating jobs in tertiary sector and encourages growth in primary/secondary sectors,

- creates dependency (fickle) (e.g. Indonesia; tsunami and Bali bombing), inflation, opportunity cost, pressure on services/infrastructure, economic leakage
Carrying capacity
Maximum number of people that may visit a tourist destination at the same time, without causing destruction of the physical, economic, socio-cultural environment and an unacceptable decrease in the quality of visitor's satisfaction.
Environmental carrying capacity
Maximum number of visitors before local environment is damaged/is damaged at a rate that exceeds the habitat's ability to regenerate.
Economic carrying capacity
The extent to which a tourist destination is able to accommodate tourist functions without the loss of local activities
Perceptual or social carrying capacity
Maximum number of visitors before specific visitors consider level of impact/noise to be excessive
What is the relationship between urban settlements and recreational and sports facilities in terms of frequency, size, range and catchment area?
Settlement hierarchy determined by population size, range and # of services, and sphere of influence.

Higher up the urban hierarchy a settlement is, the greater the variety/range and # of facilities.

Increase in size of settlement, higher population and more services, correlates with decrease in frequency
Intra-urban Distribution of Recreation Facilities
TBD (CBD) - museums, theaters, galleries, hotels, restaurants

Transition zones (old industrial area in MEDCs) - cinemas, bowling alleys, shopping centres, sport centres

Suburbs (Residential area) - parks, libraries, sport centres, community centres

Rural-urban fringe (Boundary between urban and rural) - parks, hotels, shopping centres, golf courses, stadiums
Within the limits of our resources so that human needs can be met indefinitely
Sustainable development
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Key objectives of sustainable tourism are
1. Quality of the environment
2. Maximising the economic benefit
Principles of sustainable tourism
Tourism that:
- operates within natural capacities for regeneration and future productivity of natural resources
- recognises contribution of people in the communities, with their customs and lifestyles linked to the tourism experience
- accepts that people must have an equitable share in the economic benefits of tourism
Honeypot sites
Locations that attract tourists by virtue of their promotion and provision of information, refreshment and parking, and then prevent further penetration of tourists into more fragile environments
Factors that have an impact on sporting participation and success
Physical, economic, political, social, cultural
Economic factors affecting sporting participation and success
There's a strong correlation between economic wealth and provision of sporting facilities

Most sports need infrastructure and venues.
Most golf courses are found in MEDC's and NIC's (except golf courses in LEDC's for tourists).
Political factors affecting sporting participation and success
School sports
Government programs - gymnastics heavily funded in the former eastern bloc; Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Belarus, China perform well in gymnastics
National pride
Social factors affecting sporting participation and success
Affording membership fees of sports
Golf is known as a 'high class' sport
Tradition/culture of certain sports
Cultural factors affecting sporting participation and success
Religion - some cultures require women to remain robed at all times